Country and Land

Words for land, country and related words in Celtic languages.

Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *tīros = dry land, land, earth
*wo-tīro- = piece of land
Old Irish (Goídelc) tír = land, country, territory, ground
Tír inna n-Óc = (mythical) Land of Youth
Irish (Gaeilge) tír [tʲiːɾʲ] = country, land, state, nation; region, district. territory, rural district, country native, ordinary
tírdhreach = landscape
tíreach = native, of the country
tíreachas = domesticity
tíreánach = mainlander
tíreolaí = geographer
tíreolaíocht = geography
tírghrá = patriotism
tírghrách = patriotic
tírghráthóir = patriot
Tír na nÓg = (mythical) Land of the Young/Youth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tìr [tʲiːrʲ] = land, country, territory
tìreach = countryman, patriot
tìr-eòlas = geography
tìr-ghràdhaiche = patriot
tìr-mór = mainland, continent
Tìr nan Òg = (mythical) Land of the Young/Youth
àrd-tìr = highland
Manx (Gaelg) çheer = land, country, state, territory, shore
çheeragh = native
çheer-ghraihagh = patriotic
çheer-oayllee = geographer
çheer-oaylleeaght = geography
çheer vooar = mainland
çheer yalloo = landscape
Çheer ny Aeg = (mythical) Land of Youth
Proto-Brythonic *tir [ˈtiːr] = land
Old Welsh tir = land
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tir, tyr = land
Welsh (Cymraeg) tir [tiːr] = land, ground, soil, turf, estate, open land, region, territory, domain, country, earth, ridge
tiriaf, tirio = to land, come ashore, disembark, arrive, reach
tir(i)og = landowning, landed
tiriogaeth = territory, realm, district, tract, (piece of) land
tiriogaethol = territorial
tirwedd = landscape, scenery, (geographic) relief
Cornish (Kernewek) tir = land, earth
tira = to land, come ashore
tiredh = territory
tirlanow = landfill
tir meur = mainland
tirnos = landmark
tirwedh = landscape
konna tir = peninsula
penn tir = headland
Breton (Brezhoneg) tir = land
penn-tir = headland

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *tērs-os/tḗrs (to heap up, increase, enlarge) [source].

Princes Street Gardens

Proto-Celtic *wlatis = sovereignty, rule
*walo- = prince, chief
*walatro- = ruler
Old Irish (Goídelc) flaith [flaθʲ] = lordship, sovereignty, rule, kingdom, realm, prince, ruler
flaithem = prince, ruler
flaithemail = princely, munificent
flaithemnacht = rule
flaithemnas, flaithius = rule, sovereignty
flaithiúlacht = princeliness, munificence, lavishness, generosity
Irish (Gaeilge) flaith [fˠlˠah/fˠlˠa] = lordship, sovereignty, ruler, prince, lord, chief
banfhlaith = princess
flaithbheartach = princely, generous
flaithbhile = princely scion, noble champion
flaitheas = rule, sovereignty, kingdom, realm
flaitheasach = heavenly, celestial
co-fhlaitheas = confederation
flaithiúil = princely, munificent, lavish, generous
flaithiúlach = lavish, generous
flaithiúnta = sovereign, heavenly
mì-fhlathail = ignoble
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flath [fl̪ˠah] = king, prince, ruler, noble
banfhlath = wife of a chieftain, noblewoman
flath-shonas [fl̪ˠahənəs] = dominion, kingdom, heaven, the heavens
flathail = noble, gallant, patrician, princely, majestic; blithesome
mì-fhlathail = ignoble
Manx (Gaelg) flah = prince, potentate
flaunys = heaven, utopia, paradise
Proto-Brythonic *gwlad [ˈɡwlaːd] = sovereignty, country
*gwlėdig = civil, secular, established, national
*gwaladr [ɡwaˈladr̩] = ruler
Old Welsh gulat = country, realm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gulat, gulad, gwlat, gwlad = country, realm
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwlad [ɡwlaːd/ɡlaːd] = country, land, province, region, district, kingdom, realm, domain; nation, the people of a country
gwaladr = ruler, sovereign
gwladaidd = rural, rustic countrified, homely, plain, mean, poor, boorish, vulgar, rough, clumsy, awkward
gwladiath = native tongue, mother tongue
gwladwr = countryman, peasant, rustic, compatriot, inhabitant, citizen
gwledig = rural
rhyngwladol = international
Old Cornish gulat = country
Cornish (Kernewek) gwlas = country
gwlaskar = patriotic
gwlaskarer / gwlaskarores = patriot
gwlaskarenja / gwlaskerensa = patriotism
gwlaskor = kingdom, realm
Old Breton guletic = prince
Middle Breton gloat = kingdom, wealth
gloedic = count
Breton (Brezhoneg) glad [ɡlɑːt] = inheritance, heritage, patrimony

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂wélh₁tis/*h₂wl̥h₁téy-, from *h₂welh₁- (to rule, strong, powerful) [source].

Proto-Celtic *talamū = earth
Gaulish *talamon = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) talam [ˈtalaṽ] = earth, (dry) land, country, soil, dirt, clay
Irish (Gaeilge) talamh [ˈt̪ˠɑlˠəvˠ/ˈt̪ˠalˠə/ˈt̪ˠalˠu] = earth, ground, land, dry land, soil, soild base (for discussion, understanding)
talamhchreathach = seismic
talamhchrith = earthquake
talamhiata = land-locked
talamhluas = ground speed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) talamh [tal̪ˠav] = earth, ground, Earth
talamh bàn = fallow/unmanured ground
talamh-dearg = tiled soil, ploughed land
talamh-làidir, talamh-glas = unploughed land
talamh-rèisg = marshy/boggy ground
talamh-àitich = arable land, cultivable land
Manx (Gaelg) thalloo = country, land, shore, terrain, territory, clod, earth, ground , soil
thallooinaghey = to earth, earthing

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *telh₂- (ground) [source]. The French surname Talmont, and the placenames Talmont-sur-Gironde and Talmont-Saint-Hilaire come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Gaulish *talamon, and the Latin Talamone / Talmun.

Words from the same PIE root include tellurian (of or relating to the earth) in English, тло [tɫɔ] (background, environment, ground, basis) in Ukrainian, потолок [pətɐˈɫok] (ceiling, upper limit, roof) in Russian, tło [twɔ] (background) in Polish, तल [t̪əl] (bottom, level, storey, floor) in Hindi [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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