Lord, Ruler

Words for lord, master, ruler and related words in Celtic languages.

lord and lady

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *tigerno(s) = lord, master
*tigernākos = lordly, ruler
Gaulish Tigernum = placename
Primitive Irish ᚈᚔᚌᚔᚏᚅ (tigirn) = lord
Old Irish (Goídelc) tigerna = lord
tigernas = lordship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tigerna = sovereignty, lord, superior, chief
tigernach, tigernaide, tigernamail = lordly
tigernaid = rules
tigernaigid = to rule, dominate
tigernas = lordship, dominion, possession, power, dominance
tigernatas = lordship, dominion
Irish (Gaeilge) tiarna [ˈtʲiəɾˠn̪ˠə] = lord, master, ruler
tiarnaigh = to rule, dominate
tiarnas = lordship, rule, dominion, domain
tiarnúil = lordly, masterful, overbearing, domineering, cheeky
tiarnúlacht = lordliness, overbearingness, domination, cheekiness
aintiarna = despotic lord, tyrant
aintiarnas = tyranny
bantiarna = lady
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tighearna [tʲi.əɾˠn̪ˠə] = lord, The Lord, laird, chief, ruler, baronet, master, superior
tighearnach, tighearnail = lordly, magisterial
tighearnas = lordship, dominion, peerage
aintighearna = despot, oppressor, tyrant
aintighearnas = oppression, tyranny
baintighearna = lady
Manx (Gaelg) çhiarn [ˈtʃaːrn] = laird, lord, peer
çhiarnaght = dominion, lordship
çhiarnys = domain, domination, dominion, lordship, manor, peerage
ben çhiarn = lady
Proto-Brythonic *tɨɣern = lord, ruler
*tɨɣernọg = lordly, noble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) teyrn, tegyrn = lord, master
teyrneit, teyrneidd, têyrnaidd = monarchical, royal, kinglike, princely, majestic, dignified
tyrnas, ternas, teyrnas, teernas, teÿnas = monarchy, kingdom, realm, dominion
tyrnasa, tëyrnasa, teyrnasa = to reign (over), rule, govern
tëyrnasaidd = monarchical, royal, dignified
Welsh (Cymraeg) teyrn [teɨ̯rn / tei̯rn] = monarch, sovereign, king, prince, lord, ruler, leader, dictator, tyrant, royal
teyrnach, teyrnachaeth = royal line, dynasty
teyrnaidd = monarchical, royal, kinglike, princely, majestic, dignified
teyrnas = monarchy, kingdom, realm, dominion
teyrnasaf, teyrnasu = to reign (over), rule, govern
teyrnasaidd = monarchical, royal, dignified
Middle Cornish (Cerenwec) mychtern = king
Cornish (Kernewek) machdeyrn = king
Old Breton (Brethonoc) *tiarn, *tiern = lord, master
*tiarnoc = lordly, noble
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tyèrn, tiern = prince, sovereign
Breton (Brezhoneg) tiern [ˈtiː.ɛrn] = prince, sovereign

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *tiger (raid, raiding party) and *-inos (of, pertaining to). *Tigerno(s) may originally have meant something like “the chief of the raiding party” [source].

The name Vortigern from the same roots, as do versions in Welsh, Gwrtheyrn and Breton, Gourziern [source].

More about words for Kings and Queens.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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