Up Above

Today we’re looking at up, over, above and related words in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon
A quiet day on the summit of Snowden / Dydd tawel ar gopa’r Wyddfa

Proto-Celtic *ouxsos = above
*ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high, elevated
Old Irish (Goídelc) úas [uːa̯s] = above, over
anúas [aˈn͈uːa̯s] = from above
súas = up, upwards, back (in time), forward on (in time),
túas = up, above, of heaven, above (mentioned)
úasal = high, lofty, noble, high-born, gallant, genteel, honourable
Irish (Gaeilge) suas [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = up, to higher place or station, at, towards, a high level, to the south, onwards, backwards, on high, risen
anuas = down (from above)
thuas = up, in higher place, in the south, put up, on top, successful, profiting
uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born, aristocratic, gentle, gallant, genteel, lofty, precious, fine, hallowed, enchanted, inhabited by fairies
na huaisle the good people, the fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) suas [suəs] = up, upwards, upright, standing
shuas [huəs] = above, aloft up (location), upper
a-nuas [əˈn̪ˠuəs] = down(wards) / up(wards) – towards the speaker
uasal [uəsəl̪ˠ] = noble, nobleman, nobility, high-minded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) seose = heavenwards, up, upward, upwards
heose = above, aloft, up, upper
neose = down, downward, downwards
ooasle = aristocratic, classy, creditable, dignified, esteemed, gentlemanly, goodly, highborn, honourable, illustrious, lofty, lordly, magnificent, noble, respected
Brythonic *ʉx [ˈʉːx] = above, on top of, over
*ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːlˑ] = high, elevated
Old Welsh uuc = above, on top of, over
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uch = above, on top of, over
uchel = shigh, tall, exalted
Welsh (Cymraeg) uwch [ɨ̞u̯χ/ɪu̯χ] = above, on top of, over, on, beyond, in front of
uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl/ˈiːχɛl] = high, tall, exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable
uchelder = high place, height, highness, nobility
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelwr = landed, proprietor, freeholder, landlord, gentleman, nobelman, aristocrat, a superior
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uhel = high, lofty, elevated
uhelder = height, highness
uhelle = to raise up on high, to exalt
Cornish (Kernewek) a-ugh = above
a-ugh dhe = over
ughel = high, grand, loud, tall
ughelder = height, loudness
Old Breton uh = on high
uchel = high
Middle Breton (Brezonec) uc’h = on high
uhel = high, noble, generous
uhelaat = to increase, rise in the sky, raise
uheladur = to shrug, enhancement
uhelañ = the highest point
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel [ˈy.ɛl] = high, uphill, upstream
uhelaat = to promote
uc’hek = maximal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewpso- (above) from *h₃ewps- (high, elevated) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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