Words for red in Celtic languages.

Flowers / Blodau

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dergos = red, crimson
Old Irish (Goídelc) derg [dʲerɡ] = red
dergaid = to redden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derg, derc = red, ruddy, bloody, sanguinary, red-hot, incandescent
dergadas = to redden
dergaid = to redden, make red, kindle, burn
dergaide = reddish
derge = redness, ruddiness, flushing
dergthach = red, ruddy, hot, reddish
Irish (Gaeilge) dearg [ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ / ˈdʲæɾˠəɡ] = red, rouge, red ink, glowing, raw, bloody
deargadh = reddening, blushing, glow(ing), light(ing), bloodying, wounding, chafing, soil-turning, digging
deargán = red matter or object, chafed, patch, glow
dearglasta = blazing, red-hot
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearg [dʲɛrɛg] = red, ruddy, flamming, red-hot
dearg-amadan = bloody fool, complete idiot
dearg-bhuidhe = orange
dearg-lasrach [dʲɛrɛg l̪ˠasrəx] = flaming red, red hot
deargachadh [dʲɛrɛgəxəɣ] = reddening, making an impression, blushing, drawing blood
dearg-ruadh = bright red (hair, wool, etc)
Manx (Gaelg) jiarg = red, sanguine, ruddy, bloodshot, rouge, gules, glowing, stark, florid, live, burning, abandoned, fair (intensive), turned (land)
jiargey = chafe, sore, red
jiargaghey = to blush, flush, glow, redden, blushing, glowing
jiargid = grossness, reddishness, redness
jiarg-bwee = orange
jiarg-cheh = red hot
jirgid = blush, glow, reddness, ruddiness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰerg- (to dim, darken) [source]. The English word dark comes from the same root [source].

Proto-Celtic *roudos = red
Gaulish *roudos = red
Old Irish (Goídelc) rúad [r͈uːa̯ð] = red, reddish
rúadnaid = to redden
forrúad = red, russet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) rúad = red, brownish, dark red, strong, mighty
rúadnaid = to make red, redden
Irish (Gaeilge) rua [ɾˠuə] = red, reddish-browm, russet, copper-brown; wild, fierce; rough, strong
ruachan = reddening, rusting (vegetation
ruachorcra = puce
ruacht = redness (of hair)
ruafholtach = red-haired
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruadh [r̪ˠuəɣ] = (browny) red, rust-coloured, ginger, russet, red colour, redness; strength; red deer
ruadhachadh [r̪ˠuə.əxəɣ] = reddening, making red
ruadhan [r̪ˠuəɣan] = reddishness, overcooked good, tea which has been boiling all day
ruadh-bhuidhe = auburn
Manx (Gaelg) ruy [rɛi/riː] = red, ginger, tan, copper-complexioned, red-haired, foxy, sandy
ruyagh = reddish
ruyghey = bronze, brown, redden, tan(ned)
ruyid = brownness, reddishness, redness, tan
ruissagh = florid, reddish, rose-coloured, rosy, ruddy
ruissaght = reddishness, rosiness, ruddiness
Proto-Brythonic *rʉð = red
Old Welsh (Kembraec) rud = red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rud, rut, rhudd = red, ruddy
rudit, rutaỽ, rudaỽ, rhuddo = to make or become red, crimson or violet
rudell, ruddell = red, reddish
rutem, rud em, rudem = ruby, garnet, ruby-coloured
rudcoch, rruddgoch, rudgoch = red, crimson, purple, blood-red, bloody
ruddlas, ryddlas = reddish-blue, purple, violet
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhudd = red, ruddy, purplish, bay, tawny, brown, bloody, covered with blood, scorched, crimson, violet, purple
rhuddaf, rhuddo = to make or become red, crimson or violet
rhuddel(l) = red, reddish, brown, bay, red ochre, red colour
rhuddem = ruby, garnet, ruby-coloured
rhuddgoch = red, crimson, purple, blood-red, bloody
rhuddiad = becoming red or pink, blushing, redness
rhuddlas = reddish-blue, purple, violet
Old Cornish rud = red
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) rudh, rud, rûdh ruydh = red, crimson
Cornish (Kernewek) rudh [ry:ð / ri:ð] = ginger, red
rudh min = lipstick
rudhek = robin
rudhel = auburn, russet red
rudhem = ruby
rudhgogh = blood-red
rudhik = reddish
rudhlas = purple, reddish purple
rudhlasdu = crimson
rudhlos = greyish red, russet
rudhvelyn = orange, reddish orange
rudhwyn = gay, pink, reddish pink
rudhya = to blush, redden
Old Breton (Brethonoc) rud = red
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ruz, ru, rus = red
Breton (Brezhoneg) ruz = red
ruzded = redness
ruzdu = brown
ruzellat = to glow
ruzian, ruziañ = to blush

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₁rewdʰ- (red). Words from the same root include red, robust, ruby, ruddy, russet and rust in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kokko-/*kokki = red
Proto-Brythonic *kox = red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coch = red
cochi, kochi = to make or become red, redden, brown, scorch, blush
cochder, cochter, kochder = redness, ruddiness, flush
kochdduy, coch-ddu, cochddû = reddish-black, russet, brown
cochliw = red-coloured, bloody, redness, ruddiness
kochwen = reddish-white, pink
coghyn, kochyn, cochen = red-haired person, hare
Welsh (Cymraeg) coch [koːχ] = red, redness, ruddy, scarlet, bloody; ginger (hair); brown; poor, feeble, unskilful
cochaf, cochi = to make or become red, redden, brown, scorch, blush
cochaidd = reddish, ruddy, bloody
cochder = redness, ruddiness, flush
cochddu = reddish-black, russet, brown
cochfelyn = copper-coloured, reddish yellow
cochlas = purple, violet, reddish blue
cochliw = red-coloured, bloody, redness, ruddiness
cochliwaf, cochliwio = to paint red
cochrudd = crimson, ruddy
cochwyn = reddish-white, pink
cochyn = red-haired person, hare
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) coch, couch = red, bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) kogh = blood-red, crimson, scarlet

Etymology: from the Latin coccum (a scarlet berry), from the Ancient Greek κόκκος (kókkos – berry). This is also the root of coccinus (scarlet, scarlet-dyed), from which comes the English word cochineal, and related words in other languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *wlannos = blood red
Old Irish (Goídelc) flann = red, blood-red
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) flann, fland [flan͈] = red, blood-red, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) flann = (blood-)red, bloody, sanguinary, blood (poetic)
flannbhuí = orange (colour)
flanndearg = vermilion
flannrua = blood-red
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flann [fl̪ˠaun̪ˠ] = blood (archaic)
flann-dhearg = blood-red (archaic)

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to strike, hit, wound). Words from the same roots include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla in English [source] and words for blood in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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