Blue / Green / Grey

Words for blue, green, grey and related things in Celtic languages.

Pont y Borth / Menai Bridge

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *glastos = green, blue
Gaulish *glastom = green, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) glas [ɡlas] = green, greenish (esp of growing things); blue, green-blue, grey-blue; metallic (colour); ice/frost colour; grey; wan (complexion); bluish, livid, discolored; faded
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glas = green, greenish (esp of growing things), blue, greenish blue, greyish blue, wan (complexion), livid, discoloured, faded (of garments)
glasaid = to grow pale or livid, to become yellow, to make green
glase = greenness, blueness, steel-colour
Irish (Gaeilge) glas [ɡlˠasˠ] = green (grass, politics); grey (horses, cloth, eyes); blue; grey; pale pallid; immature, unseasoned; raw inexperienced
glasaigh = to become green, sickly, grey, raw or chill, to make green
glasra = green, garden, stuff, vegetable, vegetation
glasrachán = pale, sickly-looking, person.
glasta = shiny, glossy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glas [gl̪ˠas] = grey-green; pale, wan, sallow; green, unripe
glasadh, glasachadh = greying, dawning
glasail [gl̪ˠasal] = greyish, pale, wan
glasraich [ɡl̪ˠasrɪç] = vegetable(s), greens
glasraichear [ɡl̪ˠasrɪçər] = vegeratian
Manx (Gaelg) glass = green (of nature), verdant, soft, pale, pasty, ashen (colour), grey (of animal), raw, unfledged, sappy, callow (of youth)
glassrey = vegetable, to vegetate
glassoil = greenish
glassaghey = greying, pale
Proto-Brythonic *glas = green, blue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glas, glâs = blue, greenish blue, sea-green
glasu, glassu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasỽellt, glaswellt = grass, green grass pr pasture
glaswyn, glaswen = light blue, pale blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) glas [ɡlaːs] = blue, azure, sky-blue, greenish blue, sea-green; green, grass-coloured, bluish green, verdant; unripe (of fruit); greyish-blue, slate-coloured, livid, pallid, pale; grey; silver
glasaf, glasu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasddu = dark blue, deep blue, violet
glasgoch = blue tinged with red, purple, violet, puce
glaswellt = grass, green grass pr pasture
glaswelltir = glassland, pasture
glaswyn = light blue, pale blue
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) glas, glâs = blue, azure, sky coloured, gray, ash coloured, verdant, green
glase = to become blue, to grow pale, to be green, to flourish
glasygyon = a green, green plot
Cornish (Kernewek) glas [ɡla:z /ɡlæ:z] = blue, green, grey, sea colour
glasdu = dark blue
glasik = blueish
glasneth = vegetation, uncultivated land
glasrudh = blueish purple, purple, violet
glaswr, glaswyrdh = sea green, turquiose
glaswyn = light blue, sky blue
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glas = blue, green, azure
Breton (Brezhoneg) glas/glaz [ɡlɑːs] = blue, green (nature), grey (horse), raw & salty, fresh, bitter, pale
glasaat = to green, freshen up
glasded = greenness
glasdu = dark blue
glasvez = greenery
glaswenn = light blue
Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃stós, from *ǵʰelh₃- (to flourish, green, yellow) [source]. Words from the same roots include chlorine , gall, glow, yellow in English, gul (yellow) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and words for clean and pure and words for white, bright and fawn in Celtic languages [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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