Blue / Green / Grey

Words for blue, green, grey and related things in Celtic languages.

Pont y Borth / Menai Bridge

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *glastos = green, blue
Gaulish *glastom = green, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) glas [ɡlas] = green, greenish (esp of growing things); blue, green-blue, grey-blue; metallic (colour); ice/frost colour; grey; wan (complexion); bluish, livid, discolored; faded
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glas = green, greenish (esp of growing things), blue, greenish blue, greyish blue, wan (complexion), livid, discoloured, faded (of garments)
glasaid = to grow pale or livid, to become yellow, to make green
glase = greenness, blueness, steel-colour
Irish (Gaeilge) glas [ɡlˠasˠ] = green (grass, politics), grey (horses, cloth, eyes), blue, pale, pallid, immature, unseasoned, raw inexperienced
glasaigh = to become green, sickly, grey, raw or chill, to make green
glasra = green, garden, stuff, vegetable, vegetation
glasrachán = pale, sickly-looking, person.
glasta = shiny, glossy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glas [gl̪ˠas] = grey-green, pale, wan, sallow, green, unripe
glasadh, glasachadh = greying, dawning
glasail [gl̪ˠasal] = greyish, pale, wan
glasraich [ɡl̪ˠasrɪç] = vegetable(s), greens
glasraichear [ɡl̪ˠasrɪçər] = vegeratian
Manx (Gaelg) glass = green (of nature), verdant, soft, pale, pasty, ashen (colour), grey (of animal), raw, unfledged, sappy, callow (of youth)
glassrey = vegetable, to vegetate
glassoil = greenish
glassaghey = greying, pale
Proto-Brythonic *glas = green, blue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glas, glâs = blue, greenish blue, sea-green
glasu, glassu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasỽellt, glaswellt = grass, green grass or pasture
glaswyn, glaswen = light blue, pale blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) glas [ɡlaːs] = blue, azure, sky-blue, greenish blue, sea-green, green, grass-coloured, bluish green, verdant, unripe (of fruit), greyish-blue, slate-coloured, livid, pallid, pale, grey, silver
glasaf, glasu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasddu = dark blue, deep blue, violet
glasgoch = blue tinged with red, purple, violet, puce
glaswellt = grass, green grass pr pasture
glaswelltir = glassland, pasture
glaswyn = light blue, pale blue
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) glas, glâs = blue, azure, sky coloured, gray, ash coloured, verdant, green
glase = to become blue, to grow pale, to be green, to flourish
glasygyon = a green, green plot
Cornish (Kernewek) glas [ɡla:z /ɡlæ:z] = blue, green, grey, sea colour
glasdu = dark blue
glasik = blueish
glasneth = vegetation, uncultivated land
glasrudh = blueish purple, purple, violet
glaswr, glaswyrdh = sea green, turquiose
glaswyn = light blue, sky blue
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glas = blue, green, azure
Breton (Brezhoneg) glas/glaz [ɡlɑːs] = blue, green (nature), grey (horse), raw & salty, fresh, bitter, pale
glasaat = to green, freshen up
glasded = greenness
glasdu = dark blue
glasvez = greenery
glaswenn = light blue
Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃stós, from *ǵʰelh₃- (to flourish, green, yellow) [source]. Words from the same roots include chlorine, gall, gild, glow, gold, yellow in English, gul (yellow) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and words for clean and pure and words for white, bright and fawn in Celtic languages [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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