Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nieces

Today we’re looking at the words for niece and related people in Celtic languages.

Sasha and Nick
My brother and my niece

Proto-Celtic *nextī = niece
Old Irish (Goídelc) necht = niece
Irish (Gaeilge) neacht [n̠ʲæxt̪ˠ] = niece
garneacht = great-niece
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nigh [n̪iːj] = daughter, niece
Proto-Brythonic *nėθ = niece
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nith = niece
Welsh (Cymraeg) nith [niːθ] = niece
gor-nith = great-niece
Old Cornish noit = niece
Cornish (Kernwek) nith = niece
Old Breton nith = niece
Middle Breton nyz = niece
Breton (Brezhoneg) nizh, nizez = niece
gou(r)nizez = great-niece

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *néptih₂ (niece, granddaughter) [source].

Words in Germanic language the come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *niftiz (female descendent, granddaughter, niece), including: Nichte (niece) in German, nicht (female cousin, niece) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word nift (niece) [source].

The English word niece comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Old French nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Vulgar Latin *neptia (niece), from the Latin neptis (granddaughter) [source].

Other words for niece:

  • Irish: iníon deirféar (sister’s daughter), iníon dearthár (brother’s daughter)
  • Scottish Gaelic: nighean-pheathar (sister’s daughter), nighean-bhràthar (brother’s daughter), ban-ogha = granddaughter, niece
  • Manx: inneen shayrey (sister’s daughter), inneen vraarey (brother’s daughter)

See also the post about daughters.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sisters

Today we’re looking at the words for sister and related people in Celtic languages.

Sisters

Proto-Celtic *swesūr [ˈswe.suːr] = sister
Gaulish suiorebe = sister
Old Irish (Goídelc) siur [ˈsʲi.ur] = sister, kinswoman, female relation
derbṡiur [ˈdʲerʲvʲ.fʲi.ur] = sister (by blood / in a religious community)
sinserṡiur [ˈsʲinsʲerˌhi.ur] = elder sister
Irish (Gaeilge) siúr [ʃuːɾˠ] = sister, kinswoman; Sister (member of a religious community); (nursing) sister
deirfiúr = sister
deirfiúr athar = paternal aunt
deirfiúr máthar = maternal aunt
deirfiúr céile = sister-in-law
leathchúpla deirféar = twin sister
iníon deirféar = brother’s son, niece
mac deirféar = sister’s son, nephew
deirféar = sisterly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) siùir [ʃuːrʲ] = sister (archaic)
piuthar [pju.ə] = sister
piùthrag [pjuːrag] = little sister, sis
piutharail [pju.əral] = sisterly
peathrachas [pɛrəxəs] = sisterhood, soroity
piuthar-chèile = sister-in-law
piuthar leth-aon = twin sister
piuthar-altraim = foster-sister
piuthar-athar = paternal aunt
piuthar-màthar = maternal aunt
Manx (Gaelg) shuyr [ʃuːr] = sister
shayragh, shuyroil = sisterly
shuyrys = sisterhood
shuyr (v)ayrey = aunt
shuyr gholtit = foster-sister
shuyr lannoonagh = twin sister
shuyr ‘sy leigh = sister-in-law
Proto-Brythonic *hwehir = sister
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwaer = sister
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwaer [χwaːɨ̯r / χwai̯r] = sister, half-sister, female mate or partner; maiden, sweetheart, mistress; nun, sister (in hospital)
chwaer efell = twin sister
chwaer faeth = foster sister
chwaer fedydd = god-sister
chwaer yng nghyfraith = sister-in-law
hanner chwaer = half-sister, step-sister
chwaerol = sisterly
chwaeroliaeth = sisterhood
Old Cornish huir = sister
Cornish (Kernwek) hwor = sister
hanter-hwor = half-sister
Old Breton guoer = sister
Middle Breton hoer = sister
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hoar = sister
c’hoarig = sis, little sister; twin sister
c’hoarelezh = sisterhood
c’hoar-gaer, c’hoareg = sister-in-law, stepsister

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *swésōr (sister) [source].

Here’s a traditional Scottish Gaelic song about sisters – A’ phiuthrag ’sa phiuthar

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brothers

Today we’re looking at the words for brother and related people in Celtic languages.

Brothers

Proto-Celtic *brātīr [ˈbraː.tiːr] = brother
Gaulish *bratir = brother
Old Irish (Goídelc) bráthair [ˈbraːθirʲ] = brother, cousin, kinsman
bráthardacht = brotherly
bráthardae = brotherly, fraternal
derbráthair = brother (by blood), from derb (certain) & bráthair
sinserbráthair = elder brother, senior kinsman
Irish (Gaeilge) bráthair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = brother (member of a religious community), friar, kinsman; monkfish, angelfish
bráithriúil = brotherly
bráithriúlacht = brotherliness
deartháir = brother, male sibling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bràthair [ahɪrʲ] = brother, male sibling
bràithreil = brotherly
bràthair-altraim = foster brother
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
bràthair-màthar = maternal uncle
bràthair-cèile = brother-in-law
comh-bhràthaireil = fraternal
leth-bhràthair = half-brother
Manx (Gaelg) braar = brother, monk, friar
braar ayrey = parternal uncle
braar mayrey = maternal uncle
braar keeilley, braar ‘sy leigh = brother-in-law
braar lannoonagh = twin brother
braaragh, braaroil = brotherly, fraternal
braarys = brotherhood
jarroo-vraar = blood brother
lhiass-vraar = stepbrother
lieh-vraar = half brother
Proto-Brythonic *brọdr = brother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brawt, braud, bravt = brother
Welsh (Cymraeg) brawd [brau̯d] = brother, half-brother, male relative; clansman, fellow-countryman, male friend, fellow-man, like-minded person; monk; friar
brawd crefydd = friar, brother of a religious order
brawdoliaeth = brotherhood, brotherliness, brotherly feeling, brotherly love, fraternity, fellowship, relationship
brawdoli = to fraternize
brawdoldeb = brotherliness, brotherhood, brotherly love
brodorol = brotherly, fraternal; native, indigenous, vernacular
brawdyn = (little) brother, poor brother, wretch, male friend
Cornish (Kernwek) broder [taːz/tæːz] = brother
hanter-broder = half-brother
broder da = brother-in-law
brederedh = brotherhood
Old Breton brotr = brother
Middle Breton breuzr = brother
Breton (Brezhoneg) breur [ˈbrøːr] = brother
breur gevell = twin brother
breur-kaer, breureg = brother-in-law
breur-laezh, breur-mager = foster brother
breurel = fraternal
breuriezh = frairie
breuriad = siblings
hantervreur = half-brother

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fathers

Today we’re looking at the words for father and related people in Celtic languages.

Father & son

Proto-Celtic *ɸatīr [ˈɸa.tiːr] = father
*ɸatriyos = paternal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ath(a)ir [ˈaθɨrʲ] = father
athramail = fatherly, paternal, fatherlike
Irish (Gaeilge) athair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = father, ancestor, sire
aithriúil = fatherly
ardathair = patriarch
athair mór = maternity, fatherhood
leasathair = stepfather
seanathair = grandfather
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) athair [ahɪrʲ] = father, progenitor, sire
athair-baistidh = godfather
athair-cèile = father-in-law
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
leas-athair = stepfather
piuthar-athar = parternal aunt
prìomh-athair = forefather, patriarch
taobh athar = paternal
Manx (Gaelg) ayr [ˈeːar] = father, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
ayroil = fatherly, parternal
ayrvarroo = patricide
shennayr = grandfather
Old Welsh -atr = ?

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos = father, foster-father
Old Irish (Goídelc) aite [ˈadʲe] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
Irish (Gaeilge) oide [ˈɛdʲə] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
oideachas = education
oideachasóir = educationalist
oideachasúil = educational
oideas = instruction, teaching, prescription, recipe
oideoir = educator
oideolaíoch = pedagogic(al)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) oide [ɤdʲə] = tutor, foster-father, stepfather, godfather
oide-altraim = foster-father
oide-baistidh = godfather
oide-foghlaim = instructor
oide-ionnsachaidh = tutor
oide-sgoile = schoolmaster
oidich = instruction
Manx (Gaelg) gedjey = foster-father, godfather, guardian, sponsor

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tatos = dad, daddy
Proto-Brythonic *tad = father
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tad = father
Welsh (Cymraeg) tad [taːd] = father
tadaidd = fatherly, paternal
tadeiddiad = fatherhood
tadenw = patronymic
tadol = paternal, fatherly, inherited from the father
tadu = to father (a child), become a father; ascribe, attribute (to)
tadwlad = fatherland, native land
tadwys = family, lineage, fatherhood
tadwysaeth = paternity
Old Cornish tat = father
Cornish (Kernwek) tas [taːz/tæːz] = father
tasek = patron
tasrewl = patriarchy
tasveth = foster-father
tas bejydh = godfather
tas gwynn = grandfather
Tas Nadelik = Father Christmas
tas sans = patron saint
ugheldas = patriarch
Middle Breton tat = father
Breton (Brezhoneg) tad [ˈtɑːt] = father
tadeg = father-in-law
tadig = dad, daddy
tad-kaer = father-in-law
tad-kozh = grandfather
tad-kuñv = great-grandfather
tata = dad

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos (father, foster-father), the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Families and Households

Words for family, tribe, household and related things in Celtic languages.

Family

Proto-Celtic *wenyā = family, kindred
Leptonic 𐌅𐌄𐌍𐌉𐌀 (venia)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fine [ˈfʲinʲe] = family, kin, group of people of common descent, clan, tribe, race
Irish (Gaeilge) fine [ˈfʲɪnʲə] = family group, race, territory of a family group
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fine [finə] = tribe, clan, kindred, phylum
ceann-fine = chieftain, clan chief
finneach = clannish, tribal, heathen
fineachas = clanship, kindred
Middle Breton gouen(n) = race
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouenn = race

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁ (to wish, seek, desire, love, win). The name of Vannes, a town in Brittany, comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Latin Veneti [source]

Words from the same PIE root include venom, Venus, wonder, wean and winsome in English, vän (friend) in Swedish, and gwenwyn (poison, venom) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *tego-slougo- / *tegeso-slougo- = family, household
Old Irish (Goídelc) teglach [ˈtʲeɣlax] = family, household
Irish (Gaeilge) teaghlach [ˈtʲalˠəx] = household, family, domestic establishment, household troops, retinue
teaghlachas = domestic economy, housekeeping, establishment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teaghlach [ˈtʲɤːɫ̪ˠəx] = family, household
teaghlachail = domestic
teaghlachas = domesticity
teaghlach ba gréine = the solar system (poetic)
Manx (Gaelg) thielagh = family, household
mooinjer thielagh = household
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) teulu, tuyly = family, tribe, nation, household
Welsh (Cymraeg) teulu = family, tribe, nation, household; retinue, retainers, entourage, host, crowd, people
teuluaeth = household management, housekeeping, husbandry
teuluaf, teuluo, teulua = to raise a family, run a household
teuluaidd = family, familial, household, domestic
teuluedd = familiarity, concord, harmony, peace
teulueiddrwydd = hospitality; familiarity
teulues = housewife
teuluol = family, familial
Old Cornish teilu = family
Cornish (Kernewek) teylu [‘tɛɪly / ‘təɪlɪʊ] = family
hanow teylu = surname
Breton (Brezhoneg) tiegezh = household, farm, family

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tegos (cover, roof) [source] and *slowgʰos / *slowgos (entourage) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinter = community, family or household (including servants), folks, followers, attendants
Irish (Gaeilge) munitir [ˈmˠiːn̠ʲtʲəɾ / ˈmˠɪn̠ʲtʲəɾʲ] = household, community, family; associates, adherents, followers; party, retinue; kinsfolk; folk, people
muniteartha = belonging to a household or community, associated, familiar, friendly, related
munitearthacht = friendliness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muinntir [mɯin̪ʲd̪ʲɪr̪ʲ] = folk, kindred, people; inhabitants
muinntireas = service, servitude, residency (of a writer, etc)
muinntireach = household servant
neach-muinntir = (household) servant
bean-mhuinntir = maidservant
muinntir taighe = the household, members of the household
Manx (Gaelg) mooinjer = family, people, tribe, relations, inhabitants, kin, servants, folk, entourage, farmhand
mooinjerey = domestic
dooinney mooinjerey = cousin, kinsman, kinsfolk, relation
mooinjereys = blood relationship, connection, domestic servce, kinship

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *moniterā, from *monis (protection, patronage), or possibly from the Latin monastērium (monastry,cell) [source], from the Ancient Greek μοναστήριον (monastḗrion – solitary dwelling, hermit’s cell, monastery) [source].

Proto-Celtic *luxtus = people, crowd
Old Irish (Goídelc) lucht [l͈uxt] = occupants, inhabitants, possessors, household
comlucht = accomplices, companions
Irish (Gaeilge) lucht [l̪ˠʊxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠʌxt̪ˠ] = people
lucht na mbothán = frequenters of neighbour’s houses
lucht an bhurdúin = tale-bearers
lucht míghrinn = mischief-makers
lucht tréachtais = hangers-on
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luchd [l̪ˠuxg] = person
neach [n̪ʲɛx] = person, people (plural of luchd)
neach-dàimheachd = kin, relative
neach-eòlais = acquaintance
co-neach-dùthcha = fellow compatriot / countryman
Manx (Gaelg) lught = people, folk
lught eaishtagh = listener, audience, house
lught thie = family, household, household members
colught = body of people, company, firm
Old Welsh luidt, luith = tribe, lineage, family
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luith, llwyth = family, tribe, nation, household
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwyth [ˈɬuːɨ̯θ / ˈɬʊi̯θ] = tribe, people
tylwyth = immediate family, household (“house tribe”)
Tylwyth Teg = fair folk (elves, fairies)
Old Cornish leid, luyte = tribe, family
Cornish (Kernewek) looth = tribe
Old Breton loit = household, farm, family
Breton (Brezhoneg) leizh = tribe

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Proto-Celtic *toutā [ˈtow.taː] = people, tribe, tribal land
*toutyos [ˈtow.tjos] = tribesman, tribal citizen
Gaulish touta, teuta = people, tribe, tribal land
Old Irish (Goídelc) túath [tuːa̯θ] = tribe, laity, people, tribal territory
Irish (Gaeilge) tuath [t̪ˠuə] = people tribe, country, territory
tuathánach = countryman, rustic, peasant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tuath [ˈtʲɤːɫ̪ˠəx] = family, household
tuathanach = domestic
teaghlachas = domesticity
teaghlach na gréine = the solar system (poetic)
Manx (Gaelg) theay = citizens, common people, general public. laity, peasantry, public, populace
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tut, tud = people, tribe, nation, family
Welsh (Cymraeg) tud = people, tribe, nation, family, country, territory, district, region, kingdom, land, earth
tudlen = map (of the world)
tudliw = ochre
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tus = a nation, people, men
Cornish (Kernewek) tus = men, people, persons
tus henavek = elderly
Breton (Brezhoneg) tud = people, parents, relatives, characters
tud-kozh = grand-parents

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂ (people, tribe) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Dutch in English, Deutsch (German) in German, todo (all, every, each, everything) in Spanish, þjóð (a people, a nation) in Icelandic, [source].

The name Tudor was borrowed from the Welsh name Tudur, from the Old Welsh name Tutir, from the Proto-Brythonic name *Tʉdür, from the Proto-Celtic name *Toutorīxs, from *toutā (people, tribe) and *rīxs (king) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cowherd, boy, child

Words for cowherd, shepherd, boy, child in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *boukolyos = cowherd
Old Irish (Goídelc) búachaill [ˈbuːa̯xil͈ʲ] = cowherd, herdsman
Irish (Gaeilge) buachaill [ˈbˠuəxɪlʲ] = boy, young unmarried; herdboy, herdsman; man-servant, male employee; lad
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) buachaill, buachaille [buəçɪlʲə] = herder, herdsman, cowherd, shepherd, youth
Manx (Gaelg) bochilley = shepherd, herdsman
Proto-Brythonic *bʉgöl [bʉˈɡøːl] = herdsman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bugeil = son
Welsh (Cymraeg) bugail [ˈbɪɡai̯l / ˈbiːɡai̯l] = herdsman, shepherd, guardian, keeper, leader, defender; bishop, priest, pastor, minister
Cornish (Kernewek) bugel [‘bʏgɛl / ‘bɪgɐl] = shepherd, pastor
Middle Breton buguel, bugel = child
Breton (Brezhoneg) bugel = child, pastor, priest

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European gʷowkólos, from *gʷṓws (cow) and *kʷel- (to revolve, move around, sojourn) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Daughter / Girl

Words for daughter / girl in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *enigenā = daughter
Primitive Irish ᚔᚅᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐ (inigena) = daughter
Old Irish (Goídelc) ingen [ˈinʲɣʲen] = daughter, maiden, virgin, young woman
Irish (Gaeilge) iníon [ɪˈnʲiːnˠ / ˈɪnʲiːnʲ / n̠ʲiənˠ] = daughter, girl, maiden; (young) woman, Miss
gariníon = granddaughter
iníon deirféar = niece (sister’s daughter)
iníon dearthár = niece (brother’s daughter)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nighean [ɲiː.an̪ˠ] = daughter, girl, lass
gar-inghean, nighean-mhic = granddaughter
nighean-pheathar = niece (sister’s daughter)
nighean-bhràthar = niece (brother’s daughter)
Manx (Gaelg) inneen [ɪnˈjiːn] = daughter, girl (also written ‘neen / ‘nneen)
oe ‘neen = granddaughter
inneen shayrey = niece (sister’s daughter)
inneen vraarey = niece (brother’s daughter)

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *h₁én (in) + *ǵenh₁- (produce, give birth). [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary

Proto-Celtic *merkā = daughter
Proto-Brythonic *merx = daughter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) smarach [smɛrəx] = lively person; lad, young man
Welsh (Cymraeg) merch [mɛrχ] = girl, lass; female, (young or unmarried) woman; daughter; female descendant
Cornish (Kernewek) myrgh [mɪrx] = daughter
mergh = daughter
Breton (Brezhoneg) merc’h = daughter, girl, maiden
merc’hig = little girl, daughterling

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *méryos (boy, girl). [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Sons

Words for son in Celtic languages.

My sister and her son (my nephew)
My sister and her son (my nephew)

Proto-Celtic *makʷos [ˈma.kʷos] = son
Primitive Irish ᚋᚐᚊᚔ (maqi), ᚋᚐᚊᚊᚔ (maqqi), ᚋᚐᚊ (maq), ᚋᚐᚉᚉᚔ (macci) = son
Old Irish (Goídelc) macc [mak] = boy, bond, surety
macc foesma = adoptive son
macc muine = love child
macc raite = illegimate child
macc tíre = wolf (“son of the land”)
Irish (Gaeilge) mac [mˠɑk / mˠaːk / mˠak] = son, descendent, boy
mac dearthár = nephew (brother’s son)
mac deirféar = nephew (sister’s son)
mac mic = grandson (son’s son)
mac iníne = grandson (daughter’s son)
mac uchta = favourite son, pet; adopted son
mac Dé = the Son of God
mac léinn = student (“son of the learning”)
mac rí = prince
mac tíre = wolf (“son of the land”)
macacht = childhood, youthful state
macán = little son, young boy, youngster, pet child
macánta = childlike, gentle, meek, mild; honest
macántacht = boyhood, childhood; gentleness, meekness, mildness; honesty
macaomh = young person, youth, boy
macaomhact = youth, youthfulness; youthful beauty
garmhac = grandson, adopted son, sister’ son
leasmhac = stepson
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mac [maxg] = son, offspring
mac-bràthar = nephew (brother’s son)
mac-peathar = nephew (sister’s son)
mac-céile = stepson
mac-màthar = everyone, every man
mac-mallachd = the Devil
mac an duine = mankind, human being
macail [maxgal] = filial, affectionate
mac Dhé = the Son of God
mac-tìre = wolf (“son of the land”)
Manx (Gaelg) mac = son
mac braarey = nephew (brother’s son)
mac shayrey = nephew (sister’s son)
mac braar ayrey = first cousin (father’s brother’s son)
mac braar mayrey = first cousin (mother’s brother’s son)
oe mac = grandson
lhiass vac = stepson
mac mollaght, mac imshee = devil
Gaulish mapos = son
Proto-Brythonic *mab [ˈmaːb] = son
Old Welsh map = son
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) map = son
Welsh (Cymraeg) mab [maːb] = boy, son, infant, child, minor, youth; descendant; man, male
mab anweddog, mab gwedde = bachelor
mab bedydd = godson
mab caru = lover, suitor
mab cynnwys = adopted son
Mab Duw = the Son of God
mab (y) dyn = man, human being, living soul
mab mam = mother’s son, human being, living soul
mab maeth = foster son, foster child
mab yng nghyfraith = son-in-law, stepson
maban = baby, infant, young child, little boy, young son
Old Cornish mab, map = son
Cornish (Kernewek) mab [ma:b / mæ:b] = son, male child, boy
mab meythrin = foster son
mab wynn = grandson
mab den = humankind
mab an pla = devil, annoying man
maban, meppik = little son
Old Breton map, mab = son
Middle Breton mab = son
Breton (Brezhoneg) mab = son
mab henañ = older son
mab yaouañ = younger son
mab-kaer, mabeg = son-in-law
mab-bihan = grandson
mab-den= son of man
mab-lagad= pupil (of the eye)
mabel = filial

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *mh₂ḱwos, from *meh₂ḱ- (to raise, grow) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau