Rewarding Gifts

Words for prize and related things in Celtic languages.

Teilyngwyr Gwobrau Dewi Sant 2017 St David Award Finalists

Proto-Celtic *uɸo-kʷrinati = reward (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fochraic [ˈfoxriɡʲ] = reward, recompense
terḟochraic, terfhochraic = buying, payment, reward
crenaid = to buy, sell
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fochraic, fochricc = reward, recompense, payment, fee, hire, rent, compensation
fochrach = a hireling, mercenary
fochricnet = a little reward
terḟochraic, terochraic, turfhochraic = reward, recompense, price, payment, present or payment made by a bridegroom to a bride or her relations
Irish (Gaeilge) fochraig = reward, stipend, fee
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwobr, gwobyr = reward, prize
gwobr-wŷr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gober, gobruy, gobrwy, gobyr = reward, payment, fee,
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwobr/gwobrwy [ˈɡwɔbr] =reward, prize, desert, recompense, benefit, gift, tip, fee, hire, bribe
gwobrwy = fee, fine
gwobraf, gwobri, gwobru, gwobro = to reward, recompense, compensate, bribe, corrupt
gwobrwr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gwobrwyad = a rewarding, remuneration, bribery
gwobrwyaf, gwobrwyo = to award a prize, reward, recompense, acknowledge
gobr/gobrwy = reward, payment, fee, wages, recompense, gift, merit, desert, bribe
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gober, gobar, gobyr = recompense, reward, fee, wagews, stipend, hire
goberna = to hire
Cornish (Kernewek) gober = earnings, income, pay, remuneration, reward, salary, wage
gober dilavur/diweythieth = unemployment benefit
gober ispoyntel = minimum wage
gober kleves = sick pay
gober omdednans = pension
gobra = to remunerate, reward
gobrena = to rent
gobrener, gorenores = tenant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gopr, gobr = wage, salary
gopra = to bet, wager
gopraer, gopraër = mercenary, tenant, lodger
gopraff, gôbret = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate
Breton (Brezhoneg) gopr = salary, wages, pay, fee
gopra = to bet, wager, pay, hire
goprad = salary
gopradenn = recompense
goprañ = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic from *uɸo (under) and *kʷrināti (to buy) [source]. Some words for to buy in Celtic languages come from the Proto-Celtic root *kʷrināti (to buy)

Proto-Celtic *dānus / *dānus = gift
Gaulish Danomaros = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) dán [daːn] = art, gift, poem, skill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dán = gift, bestowal, endowment, present, skill, poem, song, verse, rhyme
Irish (Gaeilge) dán [d̪ˠɑ̃ːn̪ˠ/d̪ˠaːn̪ˠ] = gift, offering, craft, calling, art, faculty, art of poetry, poem, lot, fate
dánaigh = to give, bestow
dánlann = art gallery
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dàn [daːn] = poem, song, work, effort
dàn-mòr = epic poem
dàn-molaidh = eulogy
dàn-liriceach = lyric
dàn-fhacal = epigram
dànach = poetic, metric
dànachd = poetry
Manx (Gaelg) daan = poem
daan mooar = epic
daan moyllee = hymn
Proto-Brythonic *dọn = gift, blessing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) daun, davn, dawn = gift, talent
dawnget, dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth, down-goeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnha = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
donnwy, donyer, donya = to endow, bless, give, present
donyauc, donyawc, doniog = gifted, endowed, talented
Welsh (Cymraeg) dawn [dau̯n] = faculty, intellectual gift, talent, genius, humour, wit, grace, benefit, blessing, favour, reward, present, donation
dawnaf, dawno = to fare, get on
dawnaidd = gifted, endowed with or showing ability
dawnedigaeth = gift, a giving or conferring, endowment, grace
dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnhaf, dawnhau = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
doniaf, donio = to endow, bless, give, present
doniog = gifted, endowed, talented, bountiful, liberal, fortunate, advantageous
doniol = gifted, talented, endowed, eloquent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) donaison, donaeson, donaezon = gift, talent, donation
donaesonaff = to donate
donaesonner, donaesoner = donor
Breton (Brezhoneg) donezon = gift, talent, donation
donezoner = donor
donezoniñ = to donate, present, reward, gratify

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃nom (gift), from *deh₃- (to give) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include date, donate, dose and vend in English, don (gift, talent, knack) in French, dom (talent) in Portuguese, and don (gift, present, talent, knack) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúas = reward, gift
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dúas, dúáis, duais = gift, reward (esp. a recompense give to poets)
dúasach = reward- or gift-bestowing, munificent, gift-bestower, rewarder
dúasad = act of benefiting, rewarding
frithdúas = a counter-reward, the payment made to the receiter
Irish (Gaeilge) duais = gift, reward, prize, stake, prize, prize-winning
duaisbhanna = prize-bond
duaiseach = bountiful, generous
duaiseoir = prizewinner
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) duais [duəʃ] = prize, bonus, reward, purse (in sports)
duais-bhrathaidh = bribe (reward for betrayal)
duais-roinn = dividend
duais-earrainn = dividend
duais-airgid = (monetary) prize
duais-barrachd = premium
duaiseachadh [duəʃəxəɣ] = awarding, gratifying, gratification
duaismhor duəʃ(v)ər] = liberal, bountiful

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- (to give) [source].

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Short Cuts

Words for short, cut and related things in Celtic languages:

Scout Cardigan Corgi

Proto-Celtic *birros = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) berr [bʲer͈] = short
berraid = to shear, clip, shave, cut, shear, tonsure
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) berr, bearr = short
berrad = to cut, clip, shave, cut, tonsure
Irish (Gaeilge) bearr [bʲɑːɾˠ/bʲaːɾˠ] = to clip, cut, trim, cut (hair), shave, fleece (sb)
bearradh = cutting
bearrthóir = trimmer, shearer
bearrthóireacht = trimming, cutting speech
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beàrr = short, brief (archaic)
beàrr [bjaːr̪ˠ] = to cut, shave, crop, shear, pare, prune, clip, poll, dehorn
Manx (Gaelg) baarey = to bare, clip, cut, dress, poll, prune, shave, trimmed
baareyder = barber, cutter, shaver, clipper
baarys = tonsure
Gaulish *birros = a coarse kind of thick woollen cloth; a woollen cap or hood worn over the shoulders or head<
Proto-Brythonic *bɨrr [ˈbɨr͈] = short
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) birr, byrr = short, small, brief
bŷr-brŷd = a short meal of meat
uyrder, byrder = shortness, brevity
Welsh (Cymraeg) byr [bɨ̞r/bɪr] = short, small, brief, concise, condensed, abrupt, curt, stingy, sparing, deficient, faulty
byrbryd = light meal, lunch, snack
byrbwyll = rash, reckless, thoughtless
byrder = shortness, brevity, smallness, conciseness, scarity, deficiency
byrdra = shortness, brevity, smallness, curtness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber = short, diminutive, brief
beranal = asthma, shortness of breath
Cornish (Kernewek) berr [bɛɹ] = short, brief
berrhe = to abbreviate, shorten
berrheans = abrreviation
berrskrifa = to summarise
berrwelyek = short-sighted
Middle Breton (Brezonec) berr, ber, bèr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berraat = to shorten, abbreivate, reduce
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation
Breton (Brezhoneg) berr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation

Etymology: unknown

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Latin and Gaulish, include beret in English, béret (beret) in French, berret (cap) in Gascon, biretta (a square cap worm by Roman Catholic priests) in English and Italian, berretto (beanie, cap) in Italian, barrete (biretta, cap) in Portuguese, birrete (biretta) in French, and βίρρος [ˈβir.ros] (a type of cloak or mantle) in Ancient Greek [source].

Proto-Celtic *gerros = short
*gari- = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) gerr, gearr = short, a short time, castrated
gerraid = to cut, mutilate, shorten, carve
garait [ˈɡarədʲ] = short
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gerr [ɡʲer͈] = short
gairaid = to cut short, cut off, mutilate
garit, garait, gairit = short (time/distance/length)
Irish (Gaeilge) gearr [ɟɑːɾˠ/ɟaːɾˠ] = short; to cut, shorten, reduce
gearrachán = cutting remark
gearradh = cutting, cut, levy, rate, speed
gearrán = gelding, pack-horse, small horse, nag, strong-boned woman
gearróg = short bit, scrap, short drill or furrow, short stocky girl, short answer
gearrthóg = cutting, snippet, trimmings, cutlet
gearrthóir = cutter, chisel
gairid [ˈɡaɾʲədʲ] = short, near, close
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geàrr [gʲaːr̪ˠ] = short, thick-set, squat, dumpy, brief, concise, succinct, scanty; to cut, carve, sever, dock
goirid [gɤrʲɪdʲ] = short, brief, brusque
giorraich [gʲir̪ɪç] = abbreviate, abrige, shorten, curtail
giorrachadh [gʲir̪ˠəxəɣ] = abbreviation, abridgement, summary
Manx (Gaelg) giare = abbreviated, abridged, abrupt, brief, brusque, compact, concise, curt, short, summary
giarey = to abbreviate, abridge, axe, carve castrate, clip, cut
girraghey = to abbreviate, abridge, contract, shorten

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer- (short). Words from the same PIE root include ह्रस्व [ˈɦɾɐs̪.ʋɐ] (short, small, dwarfish, little, low; a dwarf) in Sanskrit, and ह्रस्व [ɦɾəs̪.ʋᵊ] (a short vowel) in Hindi, and possibly girl in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Magic and Spells

Today we’re looking at words for magic, spells and related things in Celtic languages.

Witch

Proto-Celtic *brixtā = spell, magical formula, incantation
Celtiberian *bruxtia
Gaulish brixtia
Old Irish (Goídelc) bricht = charm, spell, incantation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bricht = incanation, charm, magic spell
Irish (Gaeilge) briocht = charm, spell, amulet
briocht sí = fairy charm
briocht a chanadh = to chant a spell
briocht draíochta = magic spell
Proto-Brythonic *briθ [ˈbriːθ] = charm, incantation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleturith, lledrith, ledryth = magic, spell, charm, enchantment
llethrithawc, lledrithyawc, lleturithawc = magic, magical, enchanted
Welsh (Cymraeg) lledrith, lledfrith = magic, spell, charm, enchantment; apparition, spectre, phantom; illusion, delusion, fantasy, imagination
lledrithaid = pretence, dissembling, deception
lledrithiaf, lledrithio = to counterfeit, fake, pretend, simulate
lledrithiog = magic, magical, enchanted
Old Breton brith = charm, incantation (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerHǵ- (enlighten). Words that probably come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Celtiberian *bruxtia, include bruja (witch, crone, hag, owl) in Spanish, bruxa (witch, hex) in Galician, bruxa (witch) in Portuguese, and bruixa (witch) in Catalan [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) dríocht [ˈd̪ˠɾˠihaxt̪ˠə] = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magical, bewitching, entrancing
draíochtúil = magic, magical
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, socery, druidism
eun-draoidheachd = augury
slat-draoidheachd = magic wand/td>
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = charmer, charming, druid, magician, occult
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
fo druaight = charmed
Welsh (Cymraeg) derwyddiaeth [dɛrˈwəðjaɨ̯θ/dɛrˈwəðjai̯θ] = druidism, the druid cult
Cornish (Kerneweg) drewydhieth = druidism
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: these words come from the same roots as words for druid.

Proto-Celtic *soitos. *soyto- = magic
Proto-Brythonic *hʉd = magic, charm
hʉdol = charming, illusory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hut, hud = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft
hûdadwy, hydadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
Welsh (Cymraeg) hud [hɨːd/hiːd] = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft, spell, enchantment, charm, fascination, allurement, persuasion
hudadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
hudaf, hudo = to fashion or produce by magic, conjure, cast a spell upon, enchant, charm, entice, allure, persuade, seduce, beguile
hudaidd = alluring, charming, seductive
hudol = charming, enchanting, enticing, alluring, illusory, deceptive, deceitful
Old Cornish hudol = charming, illusory
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huder = a deceiver, hypocritic, juggler, sorcerer
hudol = sorcerer
Cornish (Kerneweg) hus = charm, enchantment, illusion, magic, sorcery, spell
husa = to charm, create an illusion, enchant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hud = magic
hudek, hudel = magic, magical
hudiñ = to charm, enchant, bewitch, delight
hudour = magician, wizard
hudouriezh = magic
Breton (Brezhoneg) hud = magic
hudek = magic, magical
hudour = magician, wizard

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-Etymology *sh₂oy-tó-s (magic), from *sh₂ey (to bind, fetter) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include seiður (magic, witchcraft, sorcery) in Icelandic, sejd (sorcery, witchcraft, magic potion) in Swedish, and seid (magic) in Norwegian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Coracles

Today we’re looking at words for coracles and related things in Celtic languages.

coracle race

A coracle is a small, rounded, lightweight boat traditionally used in Wales; in parts of the West Country of England; in Ireland, particularly the River Boyne,and in Scotland, particularly the River Spey. A coracle is made of a framework of split and interwoven willow rods, tied with willow bark and traditionally covered with an animal skin such as horse or bullock hide, with a thin layer of tar to waterproof it. These days calico, canvas or fibreglass are used instead of animal hide. They are also known as curraghs in Scotland, and currachs in Ireland [source].

Proto-Celtic *korukos = leather boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) curach = coracle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) curach = coracle, skiff, boat
curchán = little coracle, boat, skiff
Irish (Gaeilge) curach [kəˈɾˠax/ˈkʊɾˠəx/ˈkɤɾˠax] = currach, coracle
curachán = small currach, small vehicle, (boat-shape) work-basket
curachóir = currachman
curachóireacht = rowing or paddling a currach
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) curach [kurəx] = coracle, curragh, frame (of a coracle or an animal), a boat made of wicker and covered with skins or hids
curach Innseanach = canoe
curach-àile = balloon (airship)
Manx (Gaelg) curragh = coracle, canoe
Proto-Brythonic *korug = coracle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) corwc, corwgl, korwgyl, kwrwgyl = coracle
Welsh (Cymraeg) corwg(l) [ˈkɔrʊɡ/ˈkoːrʊɡ] = coracle, skiff; vessel, drinking vessel
cwrwgl = coracle
Cornish (Kerneweg) koroug = coracle
Breton (Brezhoneg) korac’h = coracle

Etymology: probably from the PIE *(s)koro- (leather), from *(s)ker- (to cut off) [source]. The English word coracle was borrowed from Welsh [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include cuir (leather) in French, cuero (leather, animal skin, hide) in Spanish and couro (leather, hide) in Portuguese [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Steps

Words for steps and related words in Celtic languages.

Medieval Estella.

Proto-Celtic *kanxsman = step, act of stepping
Gaulish *kamman = step
Old Irish (Goídelc) céimm [ˈkʲeːmʲ] = step; rank (in a hierarchy)
Irish (Gaeilge) céim [ceːmʲ] = step, degree, rank, pass, ravine, difficulty
céimnigh = to step, grade, graduate
céimniú = stepping, tread, grading, graduation
aischéim = backward step
ardchéim = high rank, dignity, higher degree
bunchéim = primary degree, positive (degree)
coiscéim = footstep, pace
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceum [kʲeːm] = step, footstep, pace, tread, path, degree, measure
cois-cheum = step, pace
ceum-coise = footstep, footpath
Manx (Gaelg) keim = phase, step, degree, stage, standard, stile, grade
keimagh = postgraduate
keimee = to graduate, promote
Proto-Brythonic *kamman = step
Old Welsh cemmein = step
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam, camm, kam = step
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = step, stride, pace, leap, foot-fall, footprint, trace, progress
camu, camaf = to step over, take a stride, take strides, pace
camâd = stile
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = pace, step, track
Middle Breton cam = step
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm = pace, walk tread, (foot)step
kammed = step

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *kengeti (to step), from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (to limp, walk lamely) [source]

Words from the same Gaulish root (*kamman) include: cammīnus (way) in Latin, camino (track, path, road, way, route, journey) and caminar (to walk, stroll, travel) in Spanish, caminho (way, road, path) in Portugese, cammino (walk, path, way) and camminare (to walk, work (function)) in Italian, and chemin (path, way, pathway) in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Lakes and Ponds

Words for lakes, ponds and related things in Celtic languages.

Llyn Idwal

Proto-Celtic *lindā = pool, lake
Gaulish lindon = pool, lake; sea, ocean
Old Irish (Goídelc) lind [l̠ʲiːn̠ʲ / l̠ʲɪn̠ʲ] = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
Irish (Gaeilge) linn = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
linn mhuilinn = mill-pond
linn lachan = duck pond
linneach = full of pools, watery
linneolaíocht = limnology (freshwater science)
linntreog = small pool, puddle, pot-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) linne [l̪ʲin̪ʲə] deep pool; strait, sound, firth
linne-thuathal, faochag-linne = whirlpool
Linne Giùdain = Firth of Forth
Linne Shalmhaigh = Solway Firth
éisg-linn = fishpond
Manx (Gaelg) lhingey = pool, pond, backwater
lhingey chassee = small whirlpool
lhingey eeast = fishpond
Proto-Brythonic *llɨnn = lake, liquid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = lake, liquid
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = lake, pool, pond, puddle, moat
llyn anoddun = bottomless pit, the deep
llyn melin = mill pond
llyn tro = whirlpool
Old Cornish lin = lake
Cornish (Kernewek) lynn, lydn = lake
Old Breton lin = lake
Breton (Brezhoneg) lenn = lake, basin, washhouse, fishpond, body of water

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o-/*liH-nd-u [source].

These words appear in places names such as Lincoln in England, Dublin in Ireland, Lintgen in Luxembourg, Limmat – a river in Switzerland (originally Lindimacus), and possibly strong>Lindern in Germany.

Proto-Celtic *loku = lake, pool
Old Irish (Goídelc) loch [l͈ox] = lake, inlet of the sea
Irish (Gaeilge) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = lake, pool, (body of) water, arm of the sea, lough, fiord
lochach = having (many) lakes
lochán = small lake, pond
lochánach = having (many) small lakes
loch-chuach = lake basin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = loch, lake
lochach = pertaining to or abounding in lochs/lakes
lochan = small lake, loch
loch-mara = sea loch
loch-tasgaidh = reservoir
loch-uisge = freshwater loch/lake
feur-lochan = small grassy loch (which tends to dry up)
Manx (Gaelg) logh [laːx] = lake, lough, loch, arm of the sea
loghan = small lake, pond, dam, tank, dock, pool
loghanagh = full of lakes
logh-hailjey = saltwater lake
logh-ushtey = freshwater lake
Old Welsh lichou = lake, pool
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luch, lluch = lake, pool
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwch [ɬuːχ] = lake, pool, stagnant water, bog, swamp, marsh, mud, mire, grime, filth, dung
Cornish (Kernewek) logh = inlet
Middle Breton laguenn = flooded field
Breton (Brezhoneg) loc’h = pond, lagoon, flooded meadow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool), which is also the root of the Icelandic lögur (liquid, fluid, lake, sea), and words for lake in Romance languages, including lac in French, Occitan and Romanian, and lago in Galician, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cor = ale, beer
coref = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Cattle

Words for cattle, cow, bull and calf in Celtic languages.

Highland cows

Proto-Celtic *bāus = cow
*bow = cow
Celtiberian boustom = stable (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [boː] = ox, cow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) = ox, cow
bóaire = stock-master, stock-owner (“cow-noble”)
bólacht = stock of cattle
bómlacht = cow’s milk
búarach = owner of cows
Irish (Gaeilge) [bˠoː] = cow
bó mhara = sea-cow, manatee
bó shamhraidh = ladybird
bó-aire = cattle lord, cattle owner
bódóir = cow-doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [boː] = cow
bò b(h)ainne = dair/milk cow
boineag = small cow
bòthach = pertaining to or abounding in cows
Manx (Gaelg) booa = cow
booa vluight = dairy cow
boin = very little cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉ = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buv, bu, buw = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) bu = cow, ox, head of cattle (as a standard of value in the Welsh laws)
buach = cowherd, rustic, wretched creature
biw = cow, cattle, horned cattle
Middle Cornish biuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bu = cow
Breton (Brezhoneg) bu = cow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle). The old Galician word busto (enclosed pasture, a herd of cattle) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Celtiberian [source].

Proto-Celtic *boukkā = cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉx = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buvch, buwch = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) buwch [bɨu̯χ / bɪu̯χ] = cow
buwch y dwfr = hippopotamus
buwch goch Duw = ladybird
buwchaidd = cow-like, pertaining to cattle, bovine, uncivilized, stolid
buwchan = small cow, young cow, heffer
buwchfrechu = to vaccinate (with cowpox)
buwchfrechiad = (cowpox) vaccination
buwchol = bovine
Old Cornish buch = cow
Middle Cornish beuch, buch, beuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bugh [biʊx / bɪwh] = cow
bugh godra = dairy cow
bughik = little cow
bughik Dhuw = ladybird
bughvowes = cowgirl
bughwas = cowboy
Breton (Brezhoneg) buoc’h [ˈbɥoːχ / ˈbyːɔχ] = cow
buoc’han = ladybird
buoc’hken = cowhide

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *bāus (cow), the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tarwos = bull
Gaulish taruos = bull
Old Irish (Goídelc) tarb [tarv] = bull
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tarb = bull
Irish (Gaeilge) tarbh [ˈt̪ˠaɾˠuː / ˈt̪ˠaɾˠu] = bull
tarbhadóir = toreador
tarbhán = bull-calf, young bull
tarbhánta = bull-like, massive, powerful
tarbhántacht = bullishness
tarbhghadhar = bulldog
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tarbh [tarav] = bull, Taurus
tarbh-chù = bulldog
tarbh-nathrach (neimhe) = dragonfly
tarbh-thonn = mighty wave
tarbhach = like a bull, hefty, chunky
tarbhan = small bull
tarbhan-dè = butterfly
Manx (Gaelg) tarroo = bull, Taurus
taarroo oaldey = bison, buffalo
tarroo-choo = bulldog
tarroo-feeaih = stag
Proto-Brythonic *tarw = bull
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tarỼ, tarv = bull
Welsh (Cymraeg) tarw [ˈtaru / ˈtaːru] = bull, uncastrated male ox, papal bull, Taurus (sign of the zodiac); valiant leader, fierce hero
tarw dur = bulldozer
tarwgi = bulldog
Old Cornish tarow = bull
Cornish (Kernewek) tarow = bull
Old Breton taruu = bull
Middle Breton taru = bull
Breton (Brezhoneg) tarv = bull

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *táwros (wild bull, aurochs), which possibly comes from or was borrowed into Proto-Semtic as *ṯawr- (bull, ox), from which we get ثَوْر (ṯawr – bull, steer, ox, Taurus) in Arabic [Source].

The Old Irish Irish word for bull was borrowed into Old Norse as tarfr, which became tarvur (bull, Taurus, womanizer) in Faroese, and tarfur (bull) in Icelandic [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include Taurus and steer in English, taureau (bull, Taurus) in French, toro (bull) in Spanish, and touro (bull) in Portuguese [Source].

Proto-Celtic *laygos / *lāɸigos = calf
Old Irish (Goídelc) lóeg [l͈oːi̯ɣ] = calf, favourite, darling
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lóeg = calf, favourite, darling, young deer
Irish (Gaeilge) lao [l̪ˠeː / l̪ˠiː] = (young) calf
laoidín = tiny calf
laofheoil = veal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) laogh [l̪ˠɯːɣ] = calf, kid (of deer), fawn, term of endearment for a child
laoghach = pertaining to or abounding in calves
laoghan = little calf
Manx (Gaelg) lheiy [ax] = calf
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lo, lloe, llo = calf
Welsh (Cymraeg) llo [ɬoː] = calf, bullock, simpleton, dolt
llo(e)aidd = calf-like
lloeaf, lloeo, lloea = to calve
Old Cornish loch = calf
Middle Cornish) leauh, loch = calf
Cornish (Kernewek) leugh [løːx / leːx / lɛwh] = calf
Breton (Brezhoneg) leue [ˈlø.e] = calf

Etymology: a diminutuve of the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂p- (cattle) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bearach = heifer, young cow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) biorach [birəx] = a weaned but not fully mature calf or foal (up to 2 years); anti-suckling device, sucking preventer, weaner
Welsh (Cymraeg) bustach / bustych = bullock, ox, steer (possibly related to the above words)

Etymology: from the Old Irish berach [ˈbʲerax] (pointed, sharp; having pointed ears, horned), from bir (stake, spit, point; spear, spike) & -ach (related to, having, characterised by, prone to) [source].

Proto-Brythonic *oti̯on- = bullock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eydyon, eidon = ox, steer, bullock
Welsh (Cymraeg) eidion = domestic male of the bovine family, ox, steer, bullock, neat
Old Cornish odion = bullock
Middle Cornish udzheon, odgan = bullock
Cornish (Kernewek) ojyon = ox
Middle Breton eugenn = bullock. ox
Breton (Brezhoneg) ejon = bullock. ox
Proto-Celtic *anderā = young woman
Gaulish anderon = heifer
Old Irish (Goídelc) ainder [ˈan͈ʲdʲər] = married woman; virgin, maiden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ander [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman
Irish (Gaeilge) ainnir [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman (poetic); attractive woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ainnir [an̠ʲɪrʲ] = maiden, virgin; nymph; marriageable woman; young woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) anneir = heifer
Welsh (CymraeG) anner [ˈanɛr] = heifer
Old Cornish annoer = heifer
Cornish (Kernewek) annor = heifer
Middle Breton annoer = heifer
Breton (Brezhoneg) annoar = heifer

Etymology: possibly related to Basque andere (lady, woman) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com