Grave Ditches

Words for graves, ditches and related things in Celtic languages:

Llanfihangel Esglai, Swydd Henffordd ☩☩☩ Michaelchurch Escley, Herefordshire

Proto-Celtic *bodyom = grave, ditch
Celtiberian arkato-bezom = silver mine (?)
Proto-Brythonic *beð = grave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bed, bet = grave, tomb
medraud, uedraut, bedraud = burial-place, grave, sepluchre, cemetery
Welsh (Cymraeg) bedd [beːð] = grave, tomb, gravestone, tombstone, interred
beddaf, beddu, beddo = to bury
bedd-dorrwr = gravedigger
beddfa = grave, tomb, mausoleum
beddfaen = gravestone, tombstone
beddrod = tomb, vault, grave, cemetery
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bedh = grave
bedhy = to bury
Cornish (Kernewek) bedh = grave, tomb
bedhros = graveyard
bedhskrif = epitaph
Middle Breton bez = tomb, tombstone
Breton (Brezhoneg) bez = grave, tomb, sepulchre

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰedʰ- (to dig, burrow). Words from the same PIE root include fossa (ditch, trench, moat, fosse, grave) in Latin, and possibly bed in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úag = grave
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úag, úaig = grave
Irish (Gaeilge) uaigh [uəɟ/uə] = grave
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uaigh [uəj] = grave, tomb, sepluchre
uaigh staoin = shallow grave
uaigh-thrannsa = passage grave
uaigheach = sepulchral, abounding in graves
uaigheachd = (act of) burying, burial
Manx (Gaelg) oaie, oaye = grave, pit, sepulchre

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) reillic = grave
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) reilic = burial place, relics (of saints)
reilcech = containg cemeteries
Irish (Gaeilge) reilig [ˈɾˠɛlʲɪɟ/ˈɾˠɛlʲɪc/ˈɾˠɨ̞lʲɪɟ] = graveyard, burial ground; relics
reiligire = sexton, grave-digger
reiligireacht = caring for churchyard, grave-digging
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) réilig, réileag [r̪ˠeːlɪgʲ] = burial place, ossuary, stone chest
réilig-cloiche = ossuary, stone chest
réiligeach = like a churchyard, having a churchyard
Manx (Gaelg) ruillick, rhullick = burial ground, cemetery, graveyard, necropolis, churchyard
ruillick fo-halloo = catacombs
ruillick ny moght = paupers’ grave

Etymology: from the Latin rēliquiae (remains, relics, remnants, survivors), from relinquō (I abandon, relinquish, forsake, leave), from the Proto-Italic *wrelinkʷō, ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European *leykʷ (to leave) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include loan in English, лишать [lʲɪˈʂatʲ] (to deprive, rob, bereave) in Russian, and possibly dìleab (bequest, inheritance, legacy) in Scottish Gaelic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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