Burdensome Loads

Words for loads, burdens and related things in Celtic languages.

Worker carrying rice seedlings to her field

Proto-Celtic *baskis = bundle, load
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) basc = circular necklet or neckband
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basc = round, red, scarlet (archaic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) beich = burden, load
Welsh (Cymraeg) baich [bai̯χ] = burden, heavy load, labour, duty, sin, sorrow, woe, responsibility, a load, a dry measure
baich gwaith = workload
beichiaf, beichio = to burden, load, weigh (down), overwhelm, encumber
beichiedig = burdened, laden
beichiog = pregnant, expectant, burdened, laden, fertile, prolific, teeming
beichiogaeth = pregnancy
beichiogaf, beichiogi = to become pregnant, impregnate, conceive
beichiogi = pregnancy, conception, feture, childbirth, delivery (of child)
Cornish (Kernewek) begh = burden, load
begh-ober = workload
beghus = burdensome, onerous
beghya = to burden, impose upon, overload
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bec’h = burden
bec’hiet = loaded, charged, full
bec’h(i)us = heavy, overwhelming, oppressive
bec’h-bec’h = with great difficulty
bec’hiadurezh = oppression
Breton (Brezhoneg) bec’h = difficulty, effort
bec’hiad = load, charge, responsibility, burden
bec’hadenn = physical effort
bec’hded = saturation

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle, band), or from a non-Indo-European source. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bascauda (woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork) in Late Latin, bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic (via Aragonese or Galician) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aire = load, burden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aire, oire, ere = load, burden
Irish (Gaeilge) eire = load, burden
eireadóir = encumbrancer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eire [erʲə] = burden, load
eireach [erʲəx] = burdensome, heavy
Manx (Gaelg) errey = burden, impost, imposition, load
thie errey = infirmary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) areu = burden, sorrow, grief
Welsh (Cymraeg) arau = burden, sorrow, grief

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úalach = burden, load, duty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úalach = burden, charge, load, duty, obligation
Irish (Gaeilge) ualach = load, burden
ualaigh = to load, burden, encumber
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uallach = round, red, scarlet (archaic)

Etymology: possibly from uala (shoulder), a version of guala (shoulder), from Middle Irish gúala (shoulder), from Old Irish gúalu (shoulder), from Proto-Indo-European *gew (to bend, curve) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include giro and gyre (a swirling vortex) in English, giro (turn, twist, rotation) in Italian, and giro (turn, spin, tour) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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