Words for loads, burdens and related things in Celtic languages.
|Proto-Celtic||*baskis = bundle, load|
|Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg)||basc = circular necklet or neckband|
|Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)||basc = round, red, scarlet (archaic)|
|Middle Welsh (Kymraec)||beich = burden, load|
|Welsh (Cymraeg)||baich [bai̯χ] = burden, heavy load, labour, duty, sin, sorrow, woe, responsibility, a load, a dry measure
baich gwaith = workload
beichiaf, beichio = to burden, load, weigh (down), overwhelm, encumber
beichiedig = burdened, laden
beichiog = pregnant, expectant, burdened, laden, fertile, prolific, teeming
beichiogaeth = pregnancy
beichiogaf, beichiogi = to become pregnant, impregnate, conceive
beichiogi = pregnancy, conception, feture, childbirth, delivery (of child)
|Cornish (Kernewek)||begh = burden, load
begh-ober = workload
beghus = burdensome, onerous
beghya = to burden, impose upon, overload
|Middle Breton (Brezonec)||bec’h = burden
bec’hiet = loaded, charged, full
bec’h(i)us = heavy, overwhelming, oppressive
bec’h-bec’h = with great difficulty
bec’hiadurezh = oppression
|Breton (Brezhoneg)||bec’h = difficulty, effort
bec’hiad = load, charge, responsibility, burden
bec’hadenn = physical effort
bec’hded = saturation
Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle, band), or from a non-Indo-European source. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bascauda (woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork) in Late Latin, bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic (via Aragonese or Galician) [source].
Words from the same PIE root include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].
|Old Irish (Goídelc)||aire = load, burden|
|Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg)||aire, oire, ere = load, burden|
|Irish (Gaeilge)||eire = load, burden
eireadóir = encumbrancer
|Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)||eire [erʲə] = burden, load
eireach [erʲəx] = burdensome, heavy
|Manx (Gaelg)||errey = burden, impost, imposition, load
thie errey = infirmary
|Middle Welsh (Kymraec)||areu = burden, sorrow, grief|
|Welsh (Cymraeg)||arau = burden, sorrow, grief|
Etymology: unknown [source].
|Old Irish (Goídelc)||úalach = burden, load, duty|
|Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg)||úalach = burden, charge, load, duty, obligation|
|Irish (Gaeilge)||ualach = load, burden
ualaigh = to load, burden, encumber
|Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)||uallach = round, red, scarlet (archaic)|
Etymology: possibly from uala (shoulder), a version of guala (shoulder), from Middle Irish gúala (shoulder), from Old Irish gúalu (shoulder), from Proto-Indo-European *gew (to bend, curve) [source].
Words from the same PIE root include giro and gyre (a swirling vortex) in English, giro (turn, twist, rotation) in Italian, and giro (turn, spin, tour) in Spanish [source].
Words marked with a * are reconstructions.
Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic