Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mysterious Secrets

In this post we’re looking at words for secret and mystery, and related words, in Celtic languages.

Secret words

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *rūnā = secret, mystery, magic
Gaulish Cobrunus = personal name
Leptonic Runatis = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) rún [r͈uːn] = mystery, secret
rúnde [ˈr͈uːn͈de] = mysterious, mystical
Irish (Gaeilge) rún [ɾˠuːnˠ] = mystery, secret, intention, purpose, resolution, love, affection
rúnach = darling, sweetheart; runic, secret, mysterious
rúnaí = secretary, confidant, secretary-bird
rúnchara = confidant(e)
rúnda = mystical, mysterious, secret, confidential
rúndacht = secrecy
rúnmhar = close, secretive
rúnscríbhin = runic script, secret writing, cipher
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rùn [r̪ˠuːn] = secret, intention, design, resolution, motive, purpose, desire, love
rùnach = secretarial, mysterious, mystical, beloved, runic
rùnag = small secret, dearie, sweetie
rùnaire = secretary
rùinean = small secret, quietly
Manx (Gaelg) roon = confidence, obstinacy, viciousness, malice, spite, resentment, rune
roonagh = stubborn, secret, vindictive, perverse, malicious, malignant, vicious, ill intentioned, runic
Proto-Brythonic *rrin = mystery
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rin = mystery, charm
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhin [r̥iːn] = secret, mystery, miracle; privacy, intimacy, intercourse; enchanment, magic spell, charm, sorcery, witchcraft, rune; virtue, attribute, property, quality, essence; secret, private, mysterious, occult
rhin(i)af / rhin(i)o = to whisper, speak secretly, charm, enchant, secrete
rhiniwr = charmer, enchanter, sorcerer, magician
rhinaidd = obscure, profound, enchanting
rhinwedd = virtue, rectitude, moral excellence, nature, quality
cyfrin = mysterious, esoteric; mystic, mystery, secret.
cyfrinach = secret, mystery, deliberation
Cornish (Kernewek) rin = mystery
kevrin(ek) = secret
Middle Breton rin = secret, wisdom

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *rewHn-, from *rewH-/*rēwH- (to roar, grumble, murmur, mumble, whisper). The Proto-Germanic word *rūnō (secret, mystery, rune) and related words in modern Germanic languages, including rune in English and Dutch, and runa (rune) in Swedish, possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, or from the same PIE root [source].

Proto-Celtic *kowdo- = hiding place, concealment
*koudeti = hide
Proto-Brythonic *kʉðɨd = to hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cud = concealment, covering, hidden
Welsh (Cymraeg) cudd [kɨð/kɪð] = concealment, hiding-place, secrecy, covering, veil; concealed, hidden, dark, hiding
cuddedig = hidden, concealed, unknown, covered,mysterious, secret, dark
cuddfa = hiding-place, retreat, hoard
cuddiad = a hiding, concealment, secret
cuddio = to hide, conceal, bury, cover
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cudhe, cidha, citha, cudhb = to hide, conceal, cover
cudhygyc = one that conceals himself, bashful, ashamed
Cornish (Kernewek) kudh = concealed, hidden, secret
kudha (rag) = to conceal, hide (from)
kudhlen = cover, veil
kudhoberys = underhand
kudhva = hideout, lair
kudhys = veiled
Middle Breton cuzaff = secret, confidential
Breton (Brezhoneg kuzh = secret, confidential
kuzh(iadell) / toull-kuzh = hiding place
kuzhat = to hide (oneself)
kuzhet = masked
kuzhadur = eclipse, blanking, concealment
kuzhuter = confidant(e)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ- from *(s)kewH- (to hide, cover, wrap). Words from the same roots include custodian, hide, house, hut and sky in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *sanestos = secret (advice), whisper, counsel, history
Old Irish (Goídelc) sana(i)s = advice, counsel, whisper, privacy
Irish (Gaeilge) sanas [ˈsˠanˠasˠ] = whisper, hint, suggestion, gloss, glossary
sanasaí = etymologist
sanasaíocht = etymology
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sanas [ˈsanəs] = notice, sign, signal, warning, hint, cue, whisper
sanasach = warning, hinting
Manx (Gaelg) sannish = whisper, hint, allusion, suggestion
sansheraght = to whisper, annunciate, speak under breath, whispering
Proto-Brythonic *hanes = history, secret
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hanes = history, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) hanes [ˈhanɛs/ˈhanas] = history, chronicle, tale, account, narrative, record, report, intelligence; secret, mystery, whisper, murmur
hanesaf / hanesu = to narrate/write history
hanesydd = historian, historiographer, chronicler

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Bridges

Words for bridges and related words in Celtic languages.

Menai Bridge / Pont y Borth

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) drochet [ˈdroxʲed] = bridge
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drochet, drochat, droichet = bridge, causeway
drochetech, drochetóir = bridge-maker
Irish (Gaeilge) droichead [ˈd̪ˠɾˠɛçəd̪ˠ] = bridge
droichead crochta = suspension bridge
droichead tógála = drawbridge
droichead meáite = weigh bridge
droichead veidhlín = bridge of a violin
droichead sróine = bridge of the nose
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) drochaid [drɔxɪdʲ] = bridge
drochaid air fleodradh = pontoon
drochaid-thogalach, drochaid-thogail = drawbridge
drochaid-choise = footbridge
drochaid-rathaid = road bridge, viaduct
drochaid-thionndain = swing bridge
Manx (Gaelg) droghad = bridge, bridge of ship, arch, gantry
droghad aae = viaduct
droghad cassee = swing bridge
droghad coshey = gangway, footbridge
droghad croghit = suspension bridge
droghad keesh = toll bridge
droichead meihaghey = weigh bridge

Etymology: from Old Irish droch (wheel, circlet) and sét (path) [source].

Gaulish ponto = bridge
Proto-Brythonic *pont = bridge
Cumbric *pont = bridge
Old Welsh (Kembraec) pont = bridge
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pont, pynt = bridge, drawbridge
Welsh (Cymraeg) pont [pɔnt] = bridge, drawbridge, viaduct, aqueduct
pontio = to bridge (a gap), to transition
pont godi = drawbridge
pont grog = suspension bridge
pont trwyn = bridge of the nose
pont y glaw, pont law = rainbow
pont ysgwydd = collar-bone, clavicle
pontio = to bridge, span, arch
pont(i)og = like a bridge, arched of the nature of a bridge
pont(i)wr, pontydd = a bridge-builder
pontyddiaeth = bridge-building
Old Cornish (Cernewec) pons = bridge
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pons = bridge
Cornish (Kernewek) pons = bridge
ponsfordh = viaduct
pons travalya = travelling bridge
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pont = bridge
Breton (Brezhoneg) pont [pɔ̃nt] = bridge, top of the furrow, culvert, trigger guard
pontan, pontañ = to bridge, lay flat stones (on a ditch or stream)
pont-tro = swing bridge
pont hent-houarn = railway bridge
pont dilestrañ = bridge, deck (of ship)
pont kargañ = loading deck
pont-tro = swing bridge

Etymology: from Latin pōns (bridge, deck), from Proto-Indo-European *pónteh₁s (path, road), from *pent- (path). Words from the same roots include pont (bridge) in French, puente (bridge) in Spanish, път [pɤt] (road, way, path, journey, way) in Bulgarian source].

Proto-Celtic *brīwā = bridge
Gaulish briua = bridge
Leptonic 𐌐𐌓𐌖𐌉𐌀𐌌 (pruiam) = funerary construction (perhaps a grave)

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerw/*bʰrēw (wooden flooring, decking, bridge), which is also the root of the English words bridge and brig, and Brücke (bridge) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Big, Large & Great

Words for big, large & great in Celtic languages.

Tasmania: The Big Tree

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *māros = big, great
*māyūs = bigger, greater
*mārāti = to enlarge, magnify
Gaulish maros
Lepontic 𐌌𐌀𐌓𐌖𐌉 (marui)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mór = big, great
mó, moü, moä = bigger
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mór, már = big, great
= bigger, greater
mórán, moran = a large quantity or number
anmor = huge, enormous
Irish (Gaeilge) mór [mˠoːɾˠ / mˠɔːɾˠ] = big, great, large
[mˠoː/mˠuː] = bigger, greater, larger
mórán = much, many
anmhór = huge, enormous, very friendly
anmhórán = huge amount, hugh number
athair mór = grandfather
baile mór = large town, city
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mòr [moːr] = big, great, large, grand, strapping; ample, bulky; high, lofty, tall; spacious; large amount
= bigger, greater, larger
mòran = a lot, many, much, multitude
ana-mhòr = huge, innense, enormous, prominent
baile-mòr = town, city
mòr-chuid = majority, most
Manx (Gaelg) mooar [muːr / muːɹ̝ / muːə̯ / muː] = big, great, grand, heavy, tall, chief, major, familiar, powerful, marked, commodious, intimate, capacious, extravagant, intense, extensive, grievous, bold (promintary), loose-fitting, difficult
moo = bigger, larger
mooaran = many, much
mooarane = great deal, lot, many, much, multitude
mooar-earroo, mooar-eash = majority
Proto-Brythonic *mọr [mɔːr] = great, large
Old Welsh maur = great
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) máúr, maur, mawr = large, big
moi, muy, mui, mwy = larger, bigger, greater
muyhaw, mvihaw, mvyhaf, mwyhaf = biggest, largest, greatest
mawraidd, mawredd = great, fine, grand, majestic
mawr eir, mawrair, mawreir = boast, bragging, eloquence, elevated language
mawrdec, mawrdeg = great and fair, very fine, magnificent, splendid
mawrder, mowrder = largeness, bigness, immensity, greatness
Welsh (Cymraeg) mawr [mau̯r / mou̯r] = large, big; fully grown; capital (letter); heavy (rain); long (hair/time); deep (water), great, greater, stormy, rough
mwy [muːɨ̯/mʊi̯] = larger, bigger, greater, louder, more, longer, further
mwyaf = biggest, largest, greatest, most, loudest, longest
mawraidd = great, fine, grand, majestic
mawrair = boast, bragging, eloquence, elevated language
mawrdeg = great and fair, very fine, magnificent, splendid
mawrder = largeness, bigness, immensity, greatness
Old Cornish maur = big
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) maur, meur, mûr = great, large, big, much
moy = more, greater, bigger
moya, moycha, mocha, mochya = greatest, most
Cornish (Kernewek) meur [mø:r / me:r ] = great, grand, large, substantial, much
moy = another, extra, more
moyha = maximum, most
meur lowr = considerably
meur ras = thank you
meuredh = majesty
meurgara = to admire
meurgarer = admirer
meurgeryans = admiration
meurgeryek = admirable
meurgerys = beloved
Old Breton mor = big
Middle Breton (Brezonec) meur = big, very, many
muy, mui = more
meurbet = very, a lot, big
meurded, meurdet = size, magnitude, greatness
meurdez = majesty
meurniver = multitude
meurvor = ocean
Breton (Brezhoneg) meur [møʁ] = big, many
mui = more
moyha = maximum, most
meurded = magnificance
meurdez = majesty
meurvor = ocean

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros (great) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Byzantine Greek μάραον (máraon – sweet chestnut), include marrone (brown, chestnut) in Italian, marron (chestnut, brown) in French, Morone (sweet chestnut) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *brassos = great, violent
Old Irish (Goídelc) bras = boastful, strident, violent
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bras, brass, brassa = boastful, defiant, forceful, violent
Irish (Gaeilge) bras = great, strong, swift (literary)
brasach = lively, quick-spoken
brasaire = lively, quick-spoken, talkative person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bras [bras] = swift, precipitous, rapid, hasty, impetuous, impulsive, rash, quick-tempered, exuberant, heady
bras-astarach =fleet-footed
bras-mhacnas = exuberant mirth, extreme debauchery
bras-uisgeach = swift/white-watered
bras-shruth = rapids, torrent
Welsh (Cymraeg) bras [braːs] = thick, fat, plump, stout, bulky, fatted, large, strong; coarse (sand); heavy (rain)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bras, brâs = great, gross, big, large, coarse
brasder = greatness, largeness, bigness, pride
braslavar = grandiloquent
brasoberys = magnificent
brassa = greater
Cornish (Kernewek) bras [bra:z] = big, bulky, large
braslavar = boast, threat
brasoberys = magnificent
brassa = bigger, major
braster = bulk, size
brastereth = majesty
brastir = continent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bras, braz = big, large, deep, important, strong
brassaat, braçzaat, braçzeët, brasat = to grow, increase, put on weight, swell, extend, enlarge
brasadur = extension, enlargement
brasentez, brazentez = size, pride
Breton (Brezhoneg) bras [bʁaz] = big, huge, important
brazentez = size, magnitude, greatness

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷrod-to- from *gʷred- from *gʰer- (to rub, stroke, grind, remove) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include gros (big, thick, fat, coarse, rough) in French, gross in English, and grosso (big, large, fat, thick, heavy, rough) in Italian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic