Good

Words for good in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *matis = good
Old Irish (Goídelc) maith [maθʲ] = good
Irish (Gaeilge) maith [mˠa(h) / mˠaɪ(h)] = good; goodness, kindness; good things; fertility
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) math [ma] = good, well
Manx (Gaelg) mie [maɪ] = good, nice, moral, fair, pious, ready, goodness, favourable, virtuous, virtue, goodly
Proto-Brythonic *mad = good
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mad [maːd] = good
Welsh (Cymraeg) mad [maːd] = good, lucky, fortunate, suitable, auspicious, beneficial, virtuous, holy, fair, pleasant, beautiful
Cornish (Kernewek) mas [ma:z / mæ:z] = good, respectable, moral
Middle Breton mat = good
Breton (Brezhoneg) mat / mad [maːd] = good, good product, moral, well (done), sweet

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *meh₂tis (ripe, good), from *meh₂- (to ripen, to mature) [source].

Note: mad is not commonly used in modern Welsh. The usual word for good is da.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Left & North

Words for left, north and related words in Celtic languages.

Northern Ireland

Proto-Celtic *kliyos = left (hand)
*uɸokliyom = north
Old Irish (Goídelc) clé = left
fochlae = the north, seat of honor
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) clé = left
fochla = the north, seat of honour
Irish (Gaeilge) clé [clʲeː / clʲiː] = left, left hand, left-hand side
clébhord = port, larbord
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) clì [kliə] = left
Manx (Gaelg) clee = left
Proto-Brythonic *kleð = left, northern
*gwogleð [ɡwoˈɡlɛːð] = north
Old Welsh cled = left hand, left side
gogled = north
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cled, kled = left hand, left side
argled = left, unlucky, unfortunate
gogled = north
Welsh (Cymraeg) cledd [kleːð] = left, left hand/side
argledd = left, unlucky, unfortunate
gogledd = north, northern, northerly
Cornish (Kernewek) kledh [klɛ:ð / kle:ð] = left, left-handed, northern
kledhbarth = north
gogledh = north
a-gledh = on the left
a-gledh dhe = to the left of
a-gledhbarth = on the north side
Breton (Brezhoneg) kleiz = left, left-handed; short-tempered, irascible; north

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱléyteh₂ (leaning, sloped, inclined) from *ḱley- (to lean, incline) [source].

Proto-Celtic *(s)kīttos = left, left-handed, clumsy, awkward, wrong, sinister, sad
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cittach = left-handed, awkward
Irish (Gaeilge) ciotach [ˈcɪt̪ˠəx / ˈcɪt̪ˠa(h)] = left-handed, awkward, clumsy, difficult, troublesome, inconvenient
ciotachán = left-handed person, awkward, clumsy person
ciotóg = left hand, left fist, lefthanded person
ciotógach = left-handed, left-fisted, awkward
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciotach [kʲihdəx] = left-handed, awkward, sinister
ciotachan = left-handed person
Manx (Gaelg) kiuttag = left hand
kyttagh = left-handed
kiuttaght = left-handedness
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwith, hwidd = left, left-handed
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwith [χwiːθ] = left; left-handed, awkward, bungling, uncouth, unfortunate, sinister, sad, strange, unaccustomed, unusual, wrong, amiss; the left (hand); the Left
chwithig = left, left-handed; strange, awkward, clumsy, bungling, wrong, inauspicious, unpleasant, suspicious
chwithlyd = sinister, chilly
gochwith, go chwith = contrary, opposite, inside out, clumsy, awkward, left-handed; evil, mishap, misfortune

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *skh₂ey- (left) [source].

Proto-Celtic *towto = left, north
Old Irish (Goídelc) túaid, thúaid = north, in the north
túaidemain = in the north, northwards
fa thuaith, fo thuaidh = northwards, to the north
Irish (Gaeilge) thuaidh [huəɟ / huə / huəj] = (in the) north, northern
ó thuaidh = to the north, northwards
aduaidh = from the north
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tuath [tuə] = north
tuathach [tuəhəx] = northerner, person from North Uist; northerly, northern, boreal
Manx (Gaelg) twoaie = north, northerly, northern, boreal, northward
twoaieagh = northerner, northsider, northern (Manx) person
goal twoaie = rainbow (“going north”)
Old Breton tut = good, favorable
tuthe = a kind of demon

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *tewto- or *tewH- (to look favorably, protect, observe). Cognate with the Latin tūtus (safe, prudent, secure, protected), which is the root of English words like tutor and intuition [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Right & South

Words for right & south in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dexswos = right (side), south
Old Irish (Goídelc) dess = right (side), right-hand; south; right, just; convenient, agreeable
Irish (Gaeilge) deas [dʲasˠ / dʲæsˠ] = south, southerly, to the south; right, right-hand
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) deas [dʲes] = south; southern; right (side); ready, finished; accomplished, expert, skilful; active, alert, quick, snappy; to hand, handy; clever, sharp; deft, dexterous
Manx (Gaelg) jesh = rightwing, righthand, starboard;nice, smart, felicitous, elegant, ready, tidy, groomed, adept, neat, seemly, becoming, suitable, fancy, trim
jiass [d͡ʒas] = south, southern, southerly, southward
Welsh (Cymraeg) deau = right; south, southern
de [deː] = south; dexterous, skilful, clever; ready; useful, handy; suitable, appropriate, proper, right, just; favourable, auspicious
Cornish (Kernewek) dyhow [dɪ’hɔʊ / də’hɔʊ] = south
Breton (Brezhoneg) dehou = right, south

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *deḱswo-, from *deḱs- (right-hand side).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Narrow

Words for narrow in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *koilos = thin
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáel / cóel = thin, slender, narrow, fine, delicate
Irish (Gaeilge) caol [keːl̪ˠ / kiːlˠ] = thin, slender; fine; narrow; shrill; slender; palatalized; weak, dilute; slight; subtle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caol [kɯːl̪ˠ] = narrow, slender; slim, thin, lean, skinny; lanky
Manx (Gaelg) keyl [keːl] = thin, fine, attenuated, lanky, lean, slim, slight, willowy, gracile, tapered, slender, hairline, narrow, spare, small, drawn out, watery (soup), weak (solution)
Proto-Brythonic *kʉl = narrow
Welsh (Cymraeg) cul [kɨːl / ˈkiːl] = narrow; lean; illiberal; bigoted, narrow-minded
Cornish (Kernewek) kul [ky:l / ki:l] = narrow

The word for narrow in Breton in strizh, which comes from the Latin strictus (tightened, compressed) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Low

Words for low in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *ɸīsselos = low
Old Irish (Goídelc) ísel [ˈiːsʲel] = low
Irish (Gaeilge) íseal [ˈiːʃəlˠ] = low, low-lying
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ìosal [iəsəl̪ˠ] = low, humble, mean lowly
ìseal [iːʃəl̪ˠ] = low, commoner
Manx (Gaelg) ishil = low
injil = low, low-necked, low-lying, low-level, low down, low-built, low-pitched, low-grade, common (vulgar), depressed, subdued, subaltern
Welsh (Cymraeg) isel [ˈɨ̞sɛl / ˈiːsɛl / ˈɪsɛl] = low, low down, low-lying, low-flying; lower than the average or usual level, running low, shallow (water, lake)
Cornish (Kernewek) isel [‘izɛl / ‘izɐl] = low, modest, vulgar
Old Breton isel = low
Breton (Brezhoneg) izel = low

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

High, Elevated, Noble

Words for high in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *ardwos = high
Gaulish *arduenna = high
Old Irish (Goídelc) ard [ar͈d] = high
Irish (Gaeilge) ard [ɑːɾˠd̪ˠ / æːɾˠd̪ˠ] = high, tall; loud; ambitious
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrd [aːr̪ˠd] = high, lofty, tall; great; loud; chief, eminent, superior, supreme
Manx (Gaelg) ard = high, towering, tall, big, loud, height, high place, fell, incline, district, region, direction, compass point, pole
Proto-Brythonic *arð = high
Welsh (Cymraeg) ardd = hill, highland, top; high, upland
Cornish (Kernewek) arth = high
Breton (Brezhoneg) arz = high

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós, from *h₃erdʰ- (to increase, grow; upright, high) [source].

Proto-Celtic *ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high
Old Irish (Goídelc) úasal = high
Irish (Gaeilge) uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born; gentle, gentlemanly; precious, fine; (of place) sacred to the dead; hallowed; enchanted, inhabited by fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uasal [uəsəl̻ˠ] = noble, highminded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) ooasle = aristocratic, lofty, illustrious, esteemed, gentlemanly, patrician, honourable, dignified, lordly, magnificent, classy, respected
Proto-Brythonic *ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːl] = high, elevated
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uchel = high, loud
Welsh (Cymraeg) uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl / ˈiːχɛl /ˈɪχɛl] = hill, tall; high(-ranking), exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable; proud, haughty, arrogant, presumptuous, snobbish
Cornish (Kernewek) ughel [‘ʏhɛl / ‘ɪʍɐl] = high, grand, loud, tall
Old Breton uchel, uhel = high
Middle Breton huel, uhel = high
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel = high, upstream, uphill

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewps- (height) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Dictionnaire Favereau

Broad & Wide

Words for broad & wide in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlitanos = broad, wide
Gaulish litana = broad, wide
Old Irish (Goídelc) lethan [l͈ʲeθan] = broad, wide
Irish (Gaeilge) leathan [ˈl̠ʲahənˠ] = broad, wide, extensive
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leathann [l̪ˠʲɛhən̪ˠ] = broad, wide, extensive
Manx (Gaelg) lhean = wide, sheet, sweeping, flat of nose, extensive, broad, full (of chin)
Proto-Brythonic *lɨdan [lɨˈdan] = broad, wide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llydan = broad, wide
Welsh (Cymraeg) llydan [ˈɬədan] = broad, wide, long or wide (stride); sturdy, stout
Cornish (Kernewek) ledan [‘lɛdan] = broad
Old Breton litan = broad, wide
Breton (Brezhoneg) ledan = wide, broad

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *pl̥th₂-enos, from *pleth₂- (flat). [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Gods, Deities & Days

Words for gods, deities & days in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dēwos = god, deity, day
*dēwā = goddess
Gaulish deuognata, teuoxtonio-, dēuos, dēwos, dēvona = god
Celtiberian teiuoreikis, deobriga = god
Galician deva = goddess (in river names)
Old Irish (Goídelc) día [dʲiːa̯] = god
Irish (Gaeilge) dia [dʲiə] = god, deity (plural: déithe)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dia [dʲiə] = god (plural: diathan)
Manx (Gaelg) jee = god, deity, godhead (plural: jeeaghyn)
Proto-Brythonic *duɨw [ˈduɨ̯w] = god
Old Welsh duiu = god
Welsh (Cymraeg) duw [dɨu̯ / dɪu̯] = god, the Supreme Being, the Almighty, the Christian Trinity; O God! (plural: duwiau)
Old Cornish duy = god
Cornish (Kernewek) duw [dyˑʊ / diˑʊ] = god (plural: duwow)
Old Breton doi = god
Middle Breton doe = god
Breton (Brezhoneg) doue = god

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *deywós (god), from *dyew- (sky, heaven) [source]. The Latin name for the city of Chester, Deva, possibly comes from the same Celtic root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Small

Words for small and related words in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *bikkos = small, little
Old Irish (Goídelc) bec(c) [ˈbʲeɡ] = small, little
Irish (Gaeilge) beag [bʲɔɡ / bʲɞɡ / bʲɛɡ] = little, small, small amount; few
beagadán = diminutive person, little one
beagaigh = to lesson, diminish
beagán = little, a few, a little, somewhat
beagchainteach = silent, taciturn
beagchéillí = senseless, foolish
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beag [beg] = small, little, wee; minor; petty, puny, trifling; slight
beag(adh) = to diminish, lessen, reduce
Manx (Gaelg) beg = small, short, slight, few, poky, model, narrow, quiet, dwarf
beggan = somewhat, slightly, partly, faintly, a few, little, small piece
Proto-Brythonic *bɨx = small
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bychan [ˈbəχan] = small, little
Welsh (Cymraeg) bach [baːχ] = small, little, short; not fully grown or developed, young; insignificant, unimportant, humble; small (business); lower-case (letter); dear, beloved; poor
bach (y) nyth = runt, spoilt youngest child
fy mach i = my dear
pen bach = big-head, conceited person
bychan [ˈbəχan] = little, small, minute, diminutive; inconspicuous, obscure, unimportant, petty; young inexperienced; little one, young child
bychanaf, bychanu = to abase, disparage, disregard, slight, minimize
bychander, bychandod = littleness, smallness, scarcity, contempt, pettiness
bychanig = very little/small, minute, diminutive, bit, piece
bychan bach very little
Cornish (Kernewek) byghan [‘bɪhan] = little, small
byghanhe = to reduce, make smaller
byghanna = smaller
bara byghan = roll
bys byghan = little finger
flogh byghan = baby
lavrek byghan = underpants, briefs
Breton (Brezhoneg) bihan = small, insufficient, modest, little
bihanaat = diminutive, pet name
bihanadur = miniature
bihanniver = minority

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰég-ko-s, from *bʰeg- (to break) +‎ the suffix *-kos

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Big, Large & Great

Words for big. large & great in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *māros = big, great
Gaulish maros
Lepontic 𐌌𐌀𐌓𐌖𐌉 (marui)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mór, máar, már = big, great
Irish (Gaeilge) mór [mˠoːɾˠ / mˠɔːɾˠ] = big, great, large
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mòr [moːr] = big, great, large, grand, strapping; ample, bulky; high, lofty, tall; spacious; large amount
Manx (Gaelg) mooar [muːr / muːɹ̝ / muːə̯ / muː] = big, great, grand, heavy, tall, chief, major, familiar, powerful, marked, commodious, intimate, capacious, extravagant, intense, extensive, grievous, bold (promintary), loose-fitting, difficult
Proto-Brythonic *mọr [mɔːr] = great, large
Old Welsh maur = great
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mawr = large, big, great
Welsh (Cymraeg) mawr [mau̯r / mou̯r] = large, big; fully grown; capital (of letter); heavy (rain); long (hair); deep (water)
Old Cornish maur = big
Cornish (Kernewek) meur [mø:r / me:r ] = great, grand, large, substantial
Old Breton mor = big
Breton (Brezhoneg) meur [møʁ] = big, many

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *moh₁ros (great) [source]

Proto-Celtic *brassos = great, violent
Irish (Gaeilge) bras = great, strong, swift (literary)
Welsh (Cymraeg) bras [braːs] = thick, fat, plump, stout, bulky, fatted, large, strong; coarse (sand); heavy (rain)
Cornish (Kernewek) bras [bra:z] = big, bulky, large
Breton (Brezhoneg) bras [bʁaz] = big, huge, important

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷrod-to- from *gʷred- [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau