High, Elevated, Noble

Words for high and related things in Celtic languages.

Inis Mór / Inishmore

Proto-Celtic *ardwos = high
Gaulish *arduenna = high
Old Irish (Goídelc) ard [ar͈d] = high, height
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ard = high, elevated, lofty, noble, distinguished, great, proud, difficult, laborious, arduous, height
ardach = hilly
ardae, airde = height, high place, greatness, nobility, loudness
ardaid = rises (against), to rebel
ardán = pride, arrogance
ardrí = high king
Irish (Gaeilge) ard [ɑːɾˠd̪ˠ / æːɾˠd̪ˠ] = height, hillock, top, high part; high, tall; loud; ambitious; chief, excellent, noble, advanced
ardaigh = to raise, elevate, ascend, carry
ardán = small height, platform, stage, stand, terrace, uplift
ardrí = high king
ardscoil = high school
ardú = elevation, increase, exaltation, excitement
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrd [aːr̪ˠd] = high, lofty, tall; great; loud; chief, eminent, superior, supreme
àrd-cheann = superior, chief
àrd-chùirt = high court
àrd-chiallach = intellectual
àrd-ollamh = professor
àrd-sgoil = secondary school, high school
àrdchadh = raising, elevating, promoting, advancing, raise, elevation, promotion, advancement
àrdaichte = raised, upgraded
àrdan = arrogance, haughtiness, pride, elevation, eminence, height
Manx (Gaelg) ard = high, towering, tall, big, loud, height, high place, fell, incline, district, region, direction, compass point, pole
ardan = platform, stage, stand
ard-chione = head, principal, superior, supremo
ardys = exaltation, greatness, height
Proto-Brythonic *arð = high
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ard, art = hill, highland, top; high, upland
Welsh (Cymraeg) ardd [arð] = hill, highland, top; high, upland
ardd-tir = high ground
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ard, arth = height, high place
arthelath = lordship
Cornish (Kernewek) ardh = height, high place
Breton (Brezhoneg) arz = high, elevated

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós, from *h₃erdʰ- (to increase, grow; upright, high) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verbs) [source].

The Ardennes, a region of forests and hills in mainly in Belgium, Luxembourg, and also in France and Germany, was known as Arduenna Silva in Latin. The first part of the Latin name probably comes from the Gaulish *arduenna, or from the Latin arduus (lofty, high, steep, tall), which comes from the same PIE root [source].

Other words from the same PIE roots include arbor, arduous, orthodox and orthography in English, arbre (tree) in French, árbol (tree, mast) in Spanish, and рост [rost] (growth, increase, rise, height, stature) in Russian [source].

Proto-Celtic *ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high
Old Irish (Goídelc) úasal = high
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úasal = high, lofty, noble, honourable, noble
Irish (Gaeilge) uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born; gentle, gentlemanly; precious, fine; (of place) sacred to the dead; hallowed; enchanted, inhabited by fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uasal [uəsəl̻ˠ] = noble, highminded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) ooasle = aristocratic, lofty, illustrious, esteemed, gentlemanly, patrician, honourable, dignified, lordly, magnificent, classy, respected
Proto-Brythonic *ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːl] = high, elevated
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) vchel, uchel = high, tall
Welsh (Cymraeg) uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl / ˈiːχɛl /ˈɪχɛl] = hill, tall; high(-ranking), exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable; proud, haughty, arrogant, presumptuous, snobbish
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelaidd = exalted
ucheldeb = highness
uchelder = high place, height, tallness, altitude, climax
ucheldir = highland, upland, high place, the Highlands
ucheldra = highness, height, glory, majesty, authority
ucheledig = elevated, sublime, noble
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uchel = high, lofty, towering
uchelder = height, highness, loftiness
uchelle = to make high, exalt, hallow, sanctify
Cornish (Kernewek) ughel [‘ʏhɛl / ‘ɪʍɐl] = high, grand, loud, tall
ugheldas = patriarch
ughelder = height, loudness, tallness, volume
ughella = higher, superlative
ughelor = noble
ughelvam = matriarch
Old Breton uchel, uhel = high
Middle Breton vhel, uhel, uc’hel = high
uhelaat = to raise, elevate
uheladur = raising, heightening
uhelañ = highest, summit
uheldad = patriarch
uhelded = height, greatness, loftiness
uhelegezh = ambition, pride
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel = high, upstream, uphill
uhelaat = raising
uhelder = altitude
uhelded = height, greatness
uheldiad = dignitary
uhelvrud = prestige

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewps- (height) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include subtle and supine (lying on its back) in English, sotto (down, underneath, below) in Italian, arduous, orthodox and orthography in English, arbre (tree) in French, árbol in Spanish, and рост [rost] (growth, increase, rise, height, stature) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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