Top Peaks

Words for top, peaks and related things in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon

Proto-Celtic *barros = top, point, peak
Gaulish Cunobarrus = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) barr = abundance, crop, crown, surplus, top, top, tree-top
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) barr = top, tip, end, crop, produce, climax, end, crown, supremacy, preeminence, transcendence
Irish (Gaeilge) barr [bˠɑːɾˠ] = tip, point, top, summit, upper part, surface, crop, yield, result, addition, excess, superiority, extremity
barrachas = predominance, surplus
barradh = hindrance
barraí = champion, superior person, arrogant person, bully
barraicín = tip, toe (of foot, stocking), toe-cap
barraíocht = excess
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàrr [baːr̪ˠ] = apex, crest, crown, summit, tip, top, zenith, surface, crop, produce, cream, son
barrachd = more, predominance, preponderance
barraidheachd = more, predominance, preponderance
barran = crest, hood, band(age), swaddling clothes
Manx (Gaelg) baare = apex, cap, climax, end, point, summit, tip, top, crest (of a wave), curl, interval, ruin, bare, film on milk, surface, crown
baarey = to bare, clip, dress, poll, prune, shave; trimmed
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) barr, bar [bar] = top, summit crest
Welsh (Cymraeg) bar [bar] = head, top, summit, crest, bush, tuft, branch
barbiaf, barbio = to trim, shave
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bar = top, summit, branch
Cornish (Kernewek) barr = summit
Old Breton barr = branch, summit, ridge, peak
Middle Breton (Brezonec) barr, bar = branch, summit, ridge, peak
Breton (Brezhoneg) barr = summit, surface, access, paroxysm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥s-ó-s, from *bʰers- (point, top, tip). Words from the same PIE roots include barley in English, farine (flour) in French, bara (bread) in Welsh, Cornish and Breton, bairín (loaf) in Irish, and related words in Celtic languages [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Gaulish, include baràz (bramble) in Romansh, barra (garret, loft, upper platform) in Galician [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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