Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (after, behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

One thought on “Through and Through

  1. Sorry, Simon, I’m afraid you’ve gone astray with the conjugated forms of trooid in Gaelg – you’ve copied and pasted them from Gaeilge or Gàidhlig. For the record, the forms are: –
    1s. My hrooid
    2s. Dty hrooid
    3s. E hrooid (m.)
    3s. E trooid (f)
    Pl. Nyd drooid
    Also, the IPA you show is for the word eddyr.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *