Words for battle and related words in Celtic languages.

St Fagan's National Museum of Wales

Proto-Celtic *katus = battle
*Katutigernos = “battle lord/master” (male name)
*Katuwelnāmnos = “battle ruler” (male name)
Gaulish Katutigernos (male name)
Primitive Irish ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒ (cattu) = battle
Old Irish (Goídelc) cath [kaθ] = battle, fight, troop, battalion
cathach = bellicose, warlike
cathaigecht = warfare
cathaige = warrior
cathaigid = to fight, give battle
cocad = war, conflict (from com (with) and cath)
Irish (Gaeilge) cath [kah] = battle, conflict, trial, battalion
cathach = battling, warlike
cathaí = battler, fighter
cathaigh to battle, fight, tempt
cogadh [ˈkɔɡə/ˈkʌɡu] = war, warfare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cath [kah] = battle, fight, contest, struggle, battalion, warfare
cathach = warlike
cath nan con = dogfight
cath-thuagh = battle axe
blàr-catha = battlefield
gairm-chatha = warcry
cogadh [kogəɣ] = war, fighting, warfare
Manx (Gaelg) cah = military action battle
crooseyr cah = battle-cruiser
caggey [ˈkaːɣə] = war, fight, scrap, combat, campaign, clash, battle
Proto-Brythonic *kad = battle
*Kadüdɨɣern (male name)
*Kaduwallọn (male name)
Old Welsh Categern, Catigern (male name)
Cadwallawn (male name)
Categern, Catigern (male name)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kad, kat = battle
Cattegirn (male name)
Catgollaun, Catguallaun, Katwallaun (male name)
Welsh (Cymraeg) cad [kaːd] = battle, conflict, war, strife, struggle, trouble, army, host, throng, multitude, band
cad ar faes = at loggerheads
cadfan = battlefield
Cadfan (male name) = 6th century Breton missionary to Wales [more details]
Cadeyrn (male name)
Cadwallon (male name)
Cornish (Kernewek) kas = armed conflict, battle
Kaswallawn (male name)
Old Breton Kaduuallon, Catuuallon (male name)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kad = battle
Kadwallawn (male name)

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kéh₃tus (fight), which is also the root of the German words Hader (dispute, quarrel) and hadern (to bicker, quarrel, struggle) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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