Words for seasons in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *wesrakos / *wesantos = spring
Old Irish (Goídelc) errach [ˈer͈ax] = spring
Irish (Gaeilge) earrach [əˈɾˠax / ˈaɾˠəx / ˈaɾˠa(h)] = spring
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) earrach [jar̪ˠəx] = spring
Manx (Gaelg) arragh [ˈarax] = spring
Proto-Brythonic *wesantēnos = spring
Old Welsh guiannuin = spring
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwaeanhwyn / gwaeannwyn / gwannwyn = spring
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanwyn [ˈɡwanwɨ̞n / ˈɡwanwɪn] = spring, springtime
Old Cornish guaintoin = spring
Cornish (Kernewek) gwaynten = spring
Breton (Brezhoneg) nevez-amzer = spring

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *wósr̥ (spring) [source].

Spring Blossom / Blodau y Gwanwyn


Proto-Celtic *samos = summer
Gaulish samo- = summer
Old Irish (Goídelc) sam [saṽ] / samrad [ˈsaṽrað] = summer
Irish (Gaeilge) samhradh [ˈsˠəuɾˠə / ˈsˠəuɾˠuː / ˈsˠəuɾˠu] = summer, summer garland
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) samhradh [sãũrəɣ] = summer
Manx (Gaelg) sourey [ˈsaurə] = summer
Proto-Brythonic *haβ̃ = summer
Old Welsh ham = summer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) haf = summer
Welsh (Cymraeg) haf [haːv / haː] = summer
Old Cornish haf = summer
Cornish (Kernewek) hav = summer
Old Breton ham = summer
Middle Breton haff = summer
Breton (Brezhoneg) hañv = summer

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer) [source].

King John's Castle / Caisleán Luimnigh


Old Irish (Goídelc) fogamar / fogomur [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = autumn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fogamur = harvest
Irish (Gaeilge) fómhar [ˈfˠoːɾˠ / ˈfˠoːvˠəɾˠ / ˈfˠɔːwəɾˠ] = autumn, harvest season, harvest
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foghar [fo.ər] = autumn, harvest, (act of) harvesting
Manx (Gaelg) fouyr = harvets, autumn
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heduref / heduueref = autumn
possibly from hydd (stag) &‎ bref (bellow)
Welsh (Cymraeg) hydref [ˈhədrɛ(v) / ˈhədra] = autumn, period of full maturity, rutting season, mating time
Cornish (Kernewek) hedra / kynnyay / kydnyadh = autumn
Breton (Brezhoneg) here / kozhamzer / diskar-amzer = autumn

Etymology (Goidelic languages), from the Proto-Celtic *wo-gamur (under winter) from *gamur (winter) [source].

autumn falls...


Proto-Celtic *gyemos / *gamur = winter
Gaulish giamos = winter (personal name)
Primitive Irish ᚌᚐᚋᚔ- (gami/gen) = winter
Old Irish (Goídelc) gam / gaim = winter, winter storm
gaimred [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = winter
Irish (Gaeilge) geimhreadh [ˈɟiːɾʲə / ˈɟiːvʲɾʲə / ˈɟɛvʲɾʲu] = winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geamhradh [gʲãũrəɣ] = winter
Manx (Gaelg) geurey [ˈɡʲeurə / ˈɡʲuːrə] = winter
Old Welsh gaem = winter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gayaf = winter
Welsh (Cymraeg) gaeaf [ˈɡeɨ̯av / ˈɡei̯av] = winter
Old Cornish goyf = winter
Cornish (Kernewek) gwav / gwâv = winter
Old Breton guoiam = winter
Middle Breton gouaff = winter
Breton (Brezhoneg) goañv [ˈɡwãw / ˈɡwã] = winter

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰyem- (winter, year, frost, snow) [source].

Coed efo eira arno

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the seasons, days and seasons in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

2 thoughts on “Seasons

  1. In Michigan, we have four seasons too, but they are different than the Celts imagined:

    1. Rainy/overcast/windy/never warm enough
    2. Drought/overbearing heat/live in air conditioning
    3. Overcast/windy/sometimes almost warm enough/gloomy/enormous piles of dead leaves
    4. Cold/except when it’s too cold/too much snow/except when there’s not enough/ice storms

    5. Repeat every year

  2. Thanks for your Celtiadur posts!! They are very well researched and fascinating.

    Near the top of the page, though, you may want to double-check the IPA for the Irish word ‘earrach’. This doesn’t look correct to me.

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