Words for heavy and related things in Celtic languages.

The plants are heavy in Bangor

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trummos = heavy
Old Irish (Goídelc) trom = heavy, burden, distress, elder, weight
trummae = heaviness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) trom = heavy, great, vast, powerful, mighty, weight, burden, bulk, severity, distress, difficulty, sorrow, blame, censure
trummae, truime = heaviness, weight, severity, rigour, sorrow, grief
Irish (Gaeilge) trom [t̪ˠɾˠuːmˠ] = weight, burden, oppression, bulk, preponderance, importance, blame, heavy, stodgy, dense, thick, abundant
tromábhal = massive
troime = heaviness, weightiness
tromaí = weighty, onerous, grave, serious, heavy-handed
tromaigh = to become heavier, make heavier, add weight to, intensify, deepen, press upon
tromán = weight
tromas = oppression, distress
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) trom [trɔum] = heavy; weighty, ponderous; pregnant; deep, profound; oppressive (mood); mournful, melancholic; burden, weight
tromach = heavy / clunky one
tromadach = bulky, large, substantial, massive, ample, weighty, lumpish
tromaich = make/become heavy, burden, load, oppress
troman = great weight
Manx (Gaelg) trome [t̪roːm] = heavy, difficult, grave, substantial, weighty, deep, sweated, emphatic, hard, gruelling, harsh
tromey = heavy, grievous
trommey = heavy
Proto-Brythonic *trumm = heavy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trum, trỼm, trom, trwm = heavy, solid, bulky, large
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwm [trʊm] = heavy, solid, bulky, large, thick, intense, severe, hard, excessive; extensive, plentiful; boring, abstruse; close, muggy, oppressive
trwmgalon, trymgalon = heavy-hearted, sad, sorrowful, downhearted, troubled, sadness
trymhau = to make/become heavier
pendrwm = downcast, downhearty, sorrowful, dejected
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) trom = heavy, weighty, sad
Old Breton trum = heavy (?)
Middle Breton (Brezonec) trum, trumm = quickly, fast, soon, sudden
Breton (Brezhoneg) trumm = sudden

The Breton words might not be cognate with the words in the other languages.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *trewd (thrust, press) [source].

Words from the same roots include intrude, protrude, threat and thrust in English, troid (fight) in Irish, trod (quarrelling, wrangling, scolding) in Scottish Gaelic and troddan (campaign, fight, quarrel) in Manx [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) pís = name of a weight, pennyweight
Proto-Brythonic *puɨs = heavy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pvys, pwys = weight
pwysedic = weighed, pressed, weighty, heavy
pvysuaur, pwys-fawr = heavy, important, momentous, serious
pwyssic = important, weighty, momentous
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwys [puːɨ̯s/pʊi̯s] = weight, pressure, impetus, burden, pound (lb)
pwysaf, pwyso = to weigh, be heavy, press, emphasize
pwysedig = weighed, pressed, weighty, heavy
pwysedd = pressure
pwysfawr = heavy, important, momentous, serious
pwysig = important, weighty, momentous, cautious
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) poys, pôs, poes, poays, boys = weighty, heavy, grevious
poesder, pysder = weight
Cornish (Kernewek) poos = heavy, emphasis, importance, pressure, weight, muggy
poosa = to weigh
posek = important
poster = heaviness
Old Breton pois, puisou = heavy, important, strong
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pouez = weight, authority, heavy
peosaff, poesa = to weigh
poesant = heavy
poesus = heavy
Breton (Brezhoneg) pouez [ˈpweːs] = weight, rhythm, importance
pouezañ [ˈpweːzã] = to weigh, insist
pouezadenn [pweˈzɑːdɛn] = weighing, pressure
pouezant = heavy
pouezer [ˈpweːzɛr] = weighing
pouezus [ˈpweːzys] = important

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Vulgar Latin *pēsum, from pēnsum (allotment, portion, weight) [source]. Words from the same roots include poids (weight) in French, and peso (weight) in Italian and Spanish [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) ponnher, ponner, pouner = heavy, important, strong
Breton (Brezhoneg) pounner [pu.nɛʁ] = heavy, exaggerated, strong, serious
pounneraat = to gain weight
pounnerder = gravity
pounnerglev = hard of hearing

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: unknown

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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