Stormy Weather

Words for storm and related things in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīnā = weather
Old Irish (Goídelc) sín [ˈsʲiːn/ˈsʲiːnʲ] = storm, tempest, (bad) weather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sín = bad weather, storm, weather, season, circumstances, atmosphere, attitude
Irish (Gaeilge) síon = weather (usually bad, stormy)
síonra = atmospheric agencies, elements
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sian [ʃiən] = violent weather, the elements, whizzing sound, squall, shriek
sianach [ʃiənəx] = stormy, squally, shrieking
sianail = (act of) shrieking, yelling
siantach [ʃiən̪ˠdəx] = pertaining to generally bad weather
marcach-siana = spindrift (spray coming off stormy sea), undulating (sheets of) rain
uisge nan seachd sian = almighty downpour, cloudburst, deluge, rainstorm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hin = (bad) weather, air
hinda, hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
Welsh (Cymraeg) hin = (bad) weather, air
hindreuliad = a weathering
hindreuliaf, hindreulio = to weather
hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinddanaf, hinddanu = to become fine, clear up (of weather)
hinfynag, = barometer
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinonaf, hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
hinsawdd = climate
Cornish (Kernewek) hin = climate
hinek = climatic
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hynon = serene, clear weather
Breton (Brezhoneg) hin = climate
hinon = serene, serenity
hinoniñ = to have a peaceful time

Etymology: possibly related to Proto-Celtic *sīniti (to stretch, extend), from *sīros (long), from PIE *seh₁- (long, lasting), or *temp- (to stretch) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) anfud = tempest, storm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) anbod, anfud = tempest, storm, turbulence, fury, rage
anfadach = stormy, perturbed, agitated
Irish (Gaeilge) anfa [ˈanˠəfˠə] =storm, tempest
anfach = stormy, rough, tempestuous
anfacht = storminess

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) doinenn = stormy weather, tempest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) doinenn = foul or stormy weather, tempest
doinennta = stormy, tempestuous, inclement
Irish (Gaeilge) doineann [ˈd̪ˠɪn̠ʲən̪ˠ] = stormy weather, storm. wintriness, cheerlessness
doineanta = stormy, wild, inclement (weather), wintry, cheerless (person)
doineantach = cheerless, cold-mannered, person; gloomy old man
doineantacht = storminess, inclemency (weather), wintriness, cheerlessness (demeanour)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doineann [dɤn̪ʲan̪ˠ] = storm, tempest
doineannach [dɔn̪ʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
doireannach [dɔrʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) dorrin = storm, tempest
dorrinagh = stormy, tempestuous
dorrinys = storminess, tempestuousness, raging

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) stoirm = storm
Irish (Gaeilge) stoirm [ˈsˠt̪ˠɪɾʲəmʲ] = storm, bluster, rage
stoirmeach = stormy, tempestuous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stoirm [sdɤrʲɤm] = storm
stoirmeil [sdɤrʲɤmal] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) sterrym = storm
sterrymagh = stormy
sterrymid = storminess
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystorm, ystorym = storm, tempest
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)storm = storm, tempest
(y)stormio = to become stormy, bluster, rain heavily, rant, scold
(y)stormus = stormy, tempestuous, turbulent, boisterous

Etymology: from Middle English storm (storm, dispute, brawl, fight), from Old English storm (storm), from Proto-West-Germanic *sturm (storm), from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz (storm), from PIE *(s)twerH- (to stir up, agitate, urge on, propel) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tywyd = weather
Welsh (Cymraeg) tywydd [ˈtəu̯.ɨ̞ð / ˈtəu̯.ɪð] = weather, bad or stormy weather
tywyddiant = meterology
tywyddol = pertaining to the weather
Cornish (Kernewek) tewedh = storm
tewedha = to weather

Etymology: unknown

More about words for weather (and time) in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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