Ploughs

Words for plough* and related things in Celtic languages.

Plough

*plough = plow for those of you in North America.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *aratrom = plough
Old Irish (Goídelc) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airid = to plough
airem = ploughman
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airem = ploughman, tiller
airid = to plough, till
airithe = ploughed
Irish (Gaeilge) arathar = ploughing equipment, plough, ploughing (literary)
air = plough (literary)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrach [aːrəx] = ploughshare, utensils for ploughing (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) erroo = ploughman, tiller of land
errooid = cultivation, tillage, ploughmanship
Proto-Brythonic *aradr [aˈradr] = plough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aratrum, aradyr, aradr, aratr = plough
aradrur, aradrwr = ploughman
aradỽy, aradwy = arable or ploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) aradr [ˈaradr/ˈaːradr] = plough, the Plough
aradraf, aradu = to plough, till, cultivate
aradrswch = ploughshare
araduriaeth = (act of) ploughing, ploughmanship
aradrwr = ploughman
aradrwy = arable or ploughed land
Old Cornish aradar = plough
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) aradar, ardar, aratum = plough
araderuur, arator = ploughmen
aras = to plough, till
Cornish (Kernewek) arader = plough
araderor = ploughman
aradow = arable
aras = to plough
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ararz, arazr = plough
Breton (Brezhoneg) arar [ˈɑːrar] = plough
aradeg = ploughing, ploughing competition
aradenn = ploughing, surge of anger
arat = to plough, spin

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₂érh₃trom (plough), from *h₂erh₃- (to plough) and *-trom (instrumental suffix). Words from the same roots include ard (a simple plough consisting of a spike dragged through the soil) in English, arður (plough, profit, gain) in Icelandic, årder (plough) in Swedish, ader (plough) in Estonian and arado (plough) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanktus / *kanxtus = plough, plough beam
Old Irish (Goídelc) cécht = plough-beam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cécht, cecht = plough-beam, plough
Irish (Gaeilge) céachta [ˈkeːx.t̪ˠə] = plough
céachtaíl = ploughing
céachtaire = ploughwright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceuchd = plough (obsolete)
Manx (Gaelg) keeaght [ˈki.axt] = plough

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *kankā (branch), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱank- (branch). Words from the same roots include géag (branch, bough, limb) in Irish, cainc (branch) in Welsh, gancio (hook) in Italian, and gancho (hook, peg) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trebad = (act of) ploughing cultivating, husbandry
trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit, dwell
Irish (Gaeilge) treabh [ˈtʲɾʲavˠ/ˈtʲɾʲəu] = to plough; till, cultivate, occupy, inhabit (literary)
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhdóir = ploughman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = to till (the ground), plough, cultivate, delve
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhta = ploughed, tilled, cultivated
Manx (Gaelg) traaue = to plough (up), till, furrow, cleave, ploughing, tilling
traauee = ploughing, contributing, to tillage
traaueyder = ploughman

Etymology: from Old Irish treb (house(hold), farm, tribe), from Proto-Celtic *trebā (dwelling), from Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Towns and Tribes.

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyd, guyd = (wooden frame of a) plough
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwŷdd [ɡwɨːð] = plough (North Wales), tree(s), branches, timber, masts, loom
Etymology: from Proto-Brythonic *gwɨð (wood, trees), from Proto-Celtic *widus (wood, trees), from PIE *h₁weydʰh₁- (to separate, split, cleave, divide) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Trees, Wood(s) and Forests.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Central Hearts

Words for heart, core, centre and related things in Celtic languages.

calon /  heart

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kridyom = heart, centre, focus, love, dear one, valour
Old Irish (Goídelc) cride [ˈkʲrʲiðʲe] = heart,
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cride = heart, centre, middle part, focus, affection, love, dear one, valour
cridecán = little heart, heartlet (term of endearment)
cridech = stout-headed
cridechair = benign, kind, beloved
cridemail = hearty, courageous, kind
cridén = dear one, heartlet (term of endearment)
cridenas = heart-trembling, fright and terror
cridiscél = moving tale, special wish, darling
Irish (Gaeilge) croí [kɾˠiː] = heart
croíán = gallant, playboy
croíbhriseadh = heart-break
croíbhriste = heart-broken, heart-breaking
croíbhrú = contrition
croídín = cuddle, little darling
croíléis = light-heartedness, merriment, sport
croíléiseach = light-hearted, merry, sportive
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cridhe [krʲi.ə] = heart, courage, centre, middle
cridheachan [krʲi.əxan] = small heart, chest brooch
cridhealas [krʲi.əl̪ˠəs] = cheerfulness, hilarity, gaiety,jollity
cridhean [krʲi.an] = small heart, gallant
cridheil [krʲi.al] = cheerful, hearty, jolly
cridhe briste = broken heart, broken spirit
cridhe-leòn = heartache
cridhe teòma = a tender heart
Manx (Gaelg) cree [kriː] = heart, hub, core, centre
creeoil = cheerful, hearty, inspiring, courage
cree brisht = bleeding heart, heartbroken
cree cloaie = hardhearted, stony, heart
y chree = dearest, my heart, my sweetheart
Proto-Brythonic *krėð = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) craidd = centre, middle, heart
Welsh (Cymraeg) craidd [krai̯ð] = centre, middle, heart, kernel, essence
craidd disgyrchiad, craidd disgyrchiant = centre of gravity
pwnc craidd = core subject
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cres, crês, creys = middle, centre, midst, heart
Cornish (Kernewek) kres = centre, middle, waist
kresnna, kresedna = to centralise
kresek = average, medium
kresel = central
kresen = centre
kresfoesik = centrifugal
kreshwilus = centripetal
kresosel = medieval
kresvorek = Mediterranean
Middle Breton (Brezonec) creis, creiz, crais = centre, middle
creisen = centre, central
craisnos, crei-nos, creiss-noss = midnight, north
Breton (Brezhoneg) kreiz [ˈkrɛjs] = centre, middle
kreiznoz = midnight, north
kreisteiz [krɛjs.ˈtɛjs] = noon, south
kreizenn [ˈkrɛj.zɛn] = centre, central
kreizennañ [krɛjˈzɛ.nːã] = centraliser
kreiz-kêr [krɛjsˈkɛːr] = town/city centre

Etymology: from PIE *ḱr̥d- from *ḱḗr (heart) [source]. Words from the same roots include heart and cardiac in English, cor (heart) in Spanish, srdce (heart) in Czech and sirds (heart) in Latvian [source].

Proto-Celtic *kalwond- = heart
Proto-Brythonic *kalwon = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) callon, kallon = heart, bosom, breast
gallondit, kalondit = courage, bravery, fortitude
kallonni = to hearten, encourage, comfort
callonnyawc, callonawc, calonnawg, kylonog = valiant, courageous
Welsh (Cymraeg) calon [ˈkalɔn] = heart, bosom, breast, womb matrix, belly, entrails, centre, pith, core, essence, spirit, thought, intent, courage, confidence
calondid = courage, bravery, fortitude, magnanimity, willingness, generosity, gentleness, mercy
calonnaf, calonni = to hearten, encourage, comfort
calonnog = valiant, courageous, plucky, hearty, willing, ready, enthusiastic, sincere, genuine
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) calon = heart
Cornish (Kernewek) kolon = heart
kolonekter = courage, valour
kolonnek, kolodnek = brave, cordial, courageous, fearless, hearty, kindly, genuine, sincere, truthful
kolonnen = core
Middle Breton (Brezonec) calon = heart
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalon [ˈkɑː.lɔ̃n] = heart, soul, courage, chest, stomach, kindness
kalonad = heartache
kaloneg = cordial, courageous, warm, valiant
kalonegezh [ka.lɔ̃.ˈnɛː.ɡɛs] = cordiality, courage, encouragement
kalonek [ka.ˈlɔ̃ː.nɛk] = courageous, cordial, warm
kalonekaat [ka.lɔ̃.ne.ˈkɑːt] = to encourage
kalonenn = core, centre
kalonour [kaˈlɔ̃ː.nur] = cardiologist
kalonus = fortifying

Etymology: unknown, possibly related to colwedd (breast, heart) and/or coludd (bowels, intestines, guts) in Welsh [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Colourful Hues

Words for colour, hue, pigment and related colours in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *līwos = colour
Gaulish *lios = colour
Old Irish (Goídelc) [ˈtane] = lustre, beauty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lí, li = beauty, lustre, glory, complexion, slendour, appearance, pallor
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̠ʲiː] = colour, complexion, lustre, sheen, pigment(ation)
líú = (act of) colouring, painting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = paint, colour, tinge, hue, complexion, properity, happiness
lìth [l̪ʲiː] = lustre, gloss, splendour, complexion, hue
lìtheach [l̪ʲiː] = greasy, slimy,slippery
Manx (Gaelg) lhee = pigment, pigmentation
Proto-Brythonic *lliw = colour
Old Welsh liu = colour, hue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyu, lliw, lliỽ, llyw = colour,hue
lliwyav, lliwaw = to colour, paint, dye
lliỽyd, lliwyd = dyer, colourer, painter
Welsh (Cymraeg) lliw [ɬɪu̯] = colour, hue, tint, complexion, countenance, colouring
lliwddall = colourbind
lliwgar = colourful, vivid, beautiful, handsome
lliw(i)af, lliw(i)o = to colour, tinge, paint, dye
lliw(i)og = coloured, tinted, dyed, painted
lliwydd = dyer, colourer, painter
Old Cornish liu = colour
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) liu, lyw = colour, dye, hue
liue = to colour, paint
liuor = painter, dyer
Cornish (Kernewek) liw = colour,dye, paint
liwa = to colour, dye, paint
liwans = painting
liwus = colourful
liwayans = painting, picture
liways = coloured, dye
Old Breton (Brethonoc) liu = colour, ink, dyed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) liu, liou = colour, ink, dyed
liuaff = to colour, dye, paint
Breton (Brezhoneg) liv [liw] = colour, ink, paint, dyed
livañ [ˈliː.vã] = to colour, dye, paint, depict
livek [ˈliːvek] = coloured
liver, livour [ˈliː.vɛr/ˈli.wːər] = painter, colourist
livus [ˈliːvys] = dye, picturesque

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *slih₂-wó-s from *(s)leh₃y- (blueish, plum-coloured) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verb stems) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include livid, lurid and sloe in English, slíva (plum) in Czech, and possibly lloer (moon) in Welsh, loor (moon) in Cornish and loar (moon) in Breton [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dath [daθ] = colour, dye
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dath = colour, dye, hue, tint, complexion
dathach = coloured
dathaid, daithaigid = colours, dyes, stains
dathamail = coloured, fine, handsome, beautiful, comely, graceful
dathugud = colouring, dyeing, painting
Irish (Gaeilge) dath [d̪ˠax/d̪ˠɑh/d̪ˠah] = colour, dye
dathach = coloured
dathadóir = colourist, dyer, painter, exaggerator, fictionist
dathadóireacht = (act of) dyeing, painting
dathaigh = to colour,dye, paint
dathannach = multi-coloured, gaily-coloured, colourful, glowing
dathdhall = colour-blind
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dath [dah] = colour, colouring, dye, pigment, dying, hue, tint, staining, suit (of cards)
dathach [dahəx] = coloured, colourful
dathachadh [dahəxəɣ] = colourising, dyeing, staining
dathadair [dahədɪrʲ] = dyer, colourist
dathail [dahal] = colourful
dathte [dahdʲə] = coloured
Manx (Gaelg) daah = colour, dye, hue, paint, pigment, singe, stain, tincture
daahagh = coloured, stainable
daahder = colourer, colourist, dyer, exaggerator, painter
daahit = coloured, dyed, painted, pigmented, stained
daahoil = colourful, picturesque, well-coloured

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) gné = appearance, form, kind, sort, species
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gné = kind, species, appearance, form, way, manner
Irish (Gaeilge) gné [ɟnʲeː/ɟɾʲeː] = species, kind, form, appearance
gnéitheach = specific, of good appearance
gnétheacht = specificity
gnéthigh = to regain appearance, mend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnè [grʲɛ̃ː] = sex, gender, genre, kind, sort, temper, disposition, genus, species
gnè-fhàs [grɛ͂ː aːs] = evolution
gnè-eòlas = typology
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
gorne = colour, hue, tint
Welsh (Cymraeg) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
agne = colour, tincture
gorne = colour, hue, tint, tincture, blush, brightness, appearance, aspect

Etymology: from PIE *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget, give birth) [source]. Words from the same roots include gender, general, generate, genius and germ in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thin & Slender

Words for thin, slender and related things in Celtic languages.

The Spire of Dublin.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *tanauyos = thin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tana [ˈtane] = thin, slender
tanacht = thinness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tana = thin, slender, narrow, shallow, sparse, scanty, scattered
tanacht = thinness, tenuity, shallowness
tanaide = subtle, abstract, thin, slender
tanaigid = to thin (out), dilute
Irish (Gaeilge) tanaí [t̪ˠəˈn̪ˠiː / ˈt̪ˠan̪ˠiː] = thin, shallow
tanaigh = to thin, slim
tanaíochan = thinning
tanaíocht = thinness, sparseness, flimsiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tana [tanə] = lean, slender, slim, thin, gaunt, skinny, shallow, flimsy
tanalachd [tanəl̪ˠəxg] = shallows, shallowness
tanach [tanəx] = narrow, slender
tanachadh [tanəxəɣ] = thinning, makeing thinner, diluting
tainead [tanəd] = degree of thinness
tanlach [tanəl̪ˠəx] = shallow water, shallows, shoal, thin soil, epidermis
tanachd [tanəxg] = thinness
tanaichte [tanɪçdʲə] = diluted, thinned
Manx (Gaelg) thanney = thin, watery, weak, flimsy, rare, shallow, slender, slim
thannaghey = to dilute, liquefy, rarefy, reduce
thannid = thinness, shallowness, leanness
Proto-Brythonic *tanẹw = thin
Old Welsh teneu = thin, slender, slim
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tenev, tenau, teneu = thin, slender, slim, flat, sparse, rare, tenuous, liquid, runny
teneir = to make or become thin(ner)
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness
Welsh (Cymraeg) tenau [ˈtɛnaɨ̯ / ˈteːnai̯] = thin, slender, watery, thin, scarce, rare
teneuaf, teneuo = to make or become thin(ner), lose weight, slim, dwindle, thin, dilute, water down
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness, rareness, scarcity, keenness
teneudra = thinness, leanness, slenderness
teneuedig = thin, thinned, diluted, depleted, rarefied
teneuwr = dieter, weight-watcher, slimmer
Old Cornish tenewen = thin
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tanow, tanaw = thin, slim, slender, lean, few, scarce
tanowder = thinness, scantiness, scarcity
Cornish (Kernewek) tanow = flimsy, lean, rare, scarce, sparse, tenuous, thin
tanowder = rarity, scarcity, thinness
tanowhe = to thin out
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tanau, tano = thin, fine
Breton (Brezhoneg) tanav [ˈtãː.naw / ˈtãː.no] = thin, fine, fluid, rare, hypocritical
tanavaat = (to be) refined, (to be) rarefied, to liquefy, dilute, weed & clear, cut (bread for soup)
tanavded = tenuity, liquidity
tanavder = tenuity, decay
tanavenn = thin place (in fabric), sparse, liquid, emaciated, hypocritical

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ténh₂us (thin), from *tenh₂- (to stretch) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include thin and tenuous in English, tenú (tenuous, thin, slender) in French, dünn (thin, slender, slim) in German, and tenký (thin) in Czech [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Long Distance

Words for long, far, distant and related things in Celtic languages.

A White Rumped Shama male in the hot sun

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīros = long
Gaulish siros = long
Old Irish (Goídelc) sír [sʲiːr] = lasting, constant
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sír = long, lasting, constant
Irish (Gaeilge) síor- [ʃiːɾˠ / ʃiəɾˠ] = perpetual, continual, ever-
síoraí = eternal, perpetual, unceasing, continual, constant, perservering
síoraigh = to perpetuate
síoraíocht = eternity, permanence, lastingness, constancy
síorchaint = talking continually, never-ending talk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìor- [ʃiər̪] = continual(ly), perpetual(ly), incessant
sìorrachd [ʃiərˠ̪əxg] = eternity
siorraidh [ʃiər̪ʲɪ] = eternal, everlasting
Manx (Gaelg) sheer- = continuous, perennial, endless, permanent, ever, continual, consant
sheeraghey = to perpetuate
sheer dy sheer = continually
sheer-riaght = eternity
Proto-Brythonic *hit [ˈhiːr] = long, tall
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hir = long
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hir, huy, hwy = long, tall, lenghty, extensive, tedious
hiraeth, hyreyth = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia
hiraethu, hiraethav = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirfaith, hirveith, hirueith, hir vaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
Welsh (Cymraeg) hir [hiːr] = long, tall, lenghty, extensive
hiraeth [ˈhɪraɨ̯θ/ˈhiːrai̯θ] = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, homesickness, earnest desire
hiraethaf, hiraethu = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirder = length, longitude
hirhaf, hirhau = to lengthen, prolong, extend
hirfaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
hirian = lanky person, tall slim fellow, gangrel, long, tall
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hir, hŷr = long, tall, prolix, tedious, dilatory
hirenath = a length of time, a long time, duration
hireth, hyreth = longing, an earnest desire, regretting, regret
hirgorn = trumpet
Cornish (Kernewek) hir = long, tall
hirder = length, tallness
hireth = homesickness, longing, loneliness, nostalgia, yearning
hirthek = homesick, longing, lonely, yearning
hirhe = to lengthen
hirneth = a very long time, tedium
hirwelyek = long-sighted
Middle Breton hyr, hir, hirr = long, far
hirder = length, anxiety
Breton (Brezhoneg) hir [ˈhiːr] = long, more
hiraat [hiˈrɑːt] = to lengthen, lie down
hiraezh [hi.ˈrɛːs] = impatience, haste, nostaligia, melancholy
hiraezhus [hiˈrɛːzys] = impatient, nostaligic
hirded [ˈhir.det] = length
hirder [ˈhirdɛr] = length, anxiety
hirnezh [ˈhirnəs] = length, boredom, melancholy
hirvoudus [hirˈvuːdys] = lamentable, moaning, plaintive

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-ró-s, from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include menhir (a single tall standing stone as a monument) in English and French (borrowed from Breton maen-hir), soir (evening) in French, sedert (since) in Dutch, seit (since, for) in German, and hidas (slow, stupid) in Finnish [source].

Proto-Celtic *siti- = length
Old Irish (Goídelc) sith- = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sith- = long
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hit = length
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hyt, hyd = length, height, duration
hyduod = continuance, continuation
Welsh (Cymraeg) hyd [hɨːd / hiːd] = length, height, duration, until, throughout, during
hydaeth = length, longitude
hydfod = continuance, continuation
hydiog = lengthy, long, tall
hydol = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hes, hês, heys, hŷs = longitude, length, duration
Cornish (Kernewek) hys, hes = extent, length
hys-ha-hys = altogether, end to end
a-hys = along
dhe-hys = at length
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hit = length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) het = length
Breton (Brezhoneg) hed [ˈheːt] = length, longitude, ordered
hedan, hedañ = to lengthen
a-hed = along, throughout
hed-ha-hed = all along

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-tó- (lengthened), from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fota [ˈfoda] = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fota, fata = long, enduring
Irish (Gaeilge) fad [fˠɑd̪] = length, distance, duration, extent
fada [ˈfˠɑd̪ˠə / ˈfˠad̪ˠə] = long, far
fadáil = delaying, lingering, dilatoriness
fadáoch = tall man, long fellow
fadáocht = lengthiness, longsomeness
fadálach = slow, tardy, dilatory, lingering, tedious
fadálacht = tardiness, tediousness
fadó = long ago
fadó fadó = once upon a time
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fad [fad] = length, duration
fada [fadə] = long, far, lanky, tall
fadachadh [fadəxəɣ] = elongating, lengthening
fadachd [fadəxg] = longing, yearning, length
fadal [fadəl̪ˠ] = delay, tediousness, longing
fadalach [fadəl̪ˠəx] = late, tardy, tedious, wearisome
fada air ais = backward, oldfashioned, uncool
fada air astar = far off / away
o chionn fhada = a long time ago, for a long time
Manx (Gaelg) foddid = distance, remoteness
foddey = afar, distance, far, markedly, remote(ly), long
foddey er-dy-henney = long ago, long since
foddey ersooyl = far afield, far away, outlying
foddey-hannaghtyn = lingering, long-distance
foddeeaght = distance, fervent desire, homesickness, longing, nostalgia

Etymology: from Old Irish fot (length), from PIE *wasdʰos (long, wide), from *h₁weh₂- (empty, wasted). Words from the same roots include waste and vast in English, and vaste (profound) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kēnos = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) cían [kʲiːa̯n] = distant, far, lasting, long, since
cíana = distance, length, long time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cían = long, enduring, far, distant
cíana = length, distance
Irish (Gaeilge) cian [ciənˠ] = length of time, age, distance, distant time, long, distant
cianaimsir = a long time
cianaistear = long, tedious, journey
cianamharc = distant view
cianaois = old age
cianaosta = long-lived, very old, pristine, primeval
cianda = distant, remote
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cian [kʲian] = distant, far off, faraway, long, tedious, weary
cian-aimsir = antiquity
cian-chonaltradh = telecommunication(s)
cian-fhada = extremely long distance

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷello- = far
Gaulish pelignos = stranger, foreigner, born far away
Old Welsh (Kembraec) pel = far, distant, remote
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pell = far, distant, remote
bellbell, bell-bell, pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig, pelledic = far (off), remote
pellynnic, pellennic = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellau, pellav = to go far
pellter, pellder, pelther = (great) distance, remoteness
Welsh (Cymraeg) pell [pɛɬ / peːɬ] = far, far-off, far-away, distant, remote, far-reacing, long (time), far (in the past of future), late
pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig = far (off), remote
pelledd = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
pellennig, pellynnig = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellhaf, pellhau = to go far (from), distance oneself (from), to cause (sb/sth), to be far (from), to postpone
pellter = (great) distance, remoteness, length (of time), distant place
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = farther, longer
pellder = distance, remoteness
pellear = a long time
pelly = to render distant, to remove far off, to drive away
Cornish (Kernewek) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = extreme, farther, farthest, further, furthest, utmost, moreover
pellder = distance, long time, remoteness
pellgomunyans = telecommuication
pellgowsel, pellgowser = (tele)phone
pellgowsell = mobile-phone
pellhe = to banish, move away, send away
pellskrifen = fax telegram
pellweler = telescope
pellwolok = television
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pell = distant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pell = distant
pellhat = to get away from
Breton (Brezhoneg) pell [pɛlː] = far, long, late
pellaat [pɛˈlɑːt] = to move away
pellad = long time
pelladur, pellded = distance
pellder = distant, length of time
pellgemenn = remote control
pellgomz [ˈpɛl.ɡɔ̃ms] = telephone
pellidigezh = distance
pellwel = television

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kʷel-so- from *kʷel- (to turn, revolve around, sojourn). English words beginning with tele-, such as telescope and telephone, come from the same PIE roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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A Bit of Bitterness

Words for bitter, sour and related things in Celtic languages.

A pint at Cafe Cargo

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *swerwos = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) serb [sʲerv] = bitter, bitterness
serbae = bitterness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serb = bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable, harsh, discordant
serbae, seirbe = bitterness, asperity
Irish (Gaeilge) searbh [ˈʃaɾˠəvˠ / ˈʃarˠu(ː)] = bitter, sour, acid
searbhaigh = to sour, embitter, become bitter
searbhán = bitter person, bitter herb, bitters
searbhánta = bitter, acrid
searbhas = bitterness, sourness, acidity
searbhasach = bitter, acrimonious
searbhóg = bitter person, bitter woman, bitter drink
searbhú = embitterment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searbh [ʃɛrɛv] = bitter, sour, tart, disagreeable, acidic
searbh-chainnt = sarcasm
searbh-ghlòr = cacophony
searbh-nhilis = bitter-sweet
duine searbh = disagreeable person
fion searbh geal = dry white wine
leann searbh = bitter (ale)
’s searbh an fhirinn = the truth hurts
Manx (Gaelg) sharroo = acid, acrid, acrimonious, bitter, cutting, embittered, sardonic, sour, tart, unpalatable, vitriolic
sharrooaghey = to embitter
sharrooane = bitters
sharrooid = bitterness
lhune sharroo = bitter (ale/beer)
Proto-Brythonic *hwerw = bitter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chuerv, chuerw, chwerw, chuero, chỽerw = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh
chwerwy, cwherwa = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwder, chweruder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwed, chỽerỽed = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwerw [ˈχwɛru/ˈχweːru] = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh, rough, severe, sharp, surly, hurtful, angry, irate, spiteful, cross, cruel, sorrowful
chwerwaf, chwerwi = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwaidd = bitter, sharp
chwerwder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwedd = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) chuero, wherow = bitter, cruel, hardhearted
Cornish (Kernewek) hwerow = bitter, harsh, sharp
hwerowder = acrimony
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hueru = bitter
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hueru, fero, huerhue = bitter
hueruentez = bitterness
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwerv [χwɛʁw] = bitter
c’hwervaat = to make or become bitter
c’hwervded, c’hwervder, c’hwerventez, c’hwervoni = bitterness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *swer- (to ache, to fester, wound, injury). Words from the same root include sword in English, chwarren (gland, knot in wood, boil, ulcer) in Welsh, zweren (to swear, pledge, declare under oath) in Dutch, and schwären (to fester, hurt, suppurate) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷereti, gʷorti- = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) goirt [ɡor͈ʲtʲ] = bitter, salty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) goirt = hungry, starved, bitter, sour, salt, sharp, keen
Irish (Gaeilge) goirt [ɡʌɾˠtʲ / ɡɔɾˠtʲ] = salt, saline, salted, bitter
goirte = saltiness, salinity, brackishness, bitterness
goirteamas = saltiness, bitterness, salt food
goirtigh = to salt, pickle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goirt [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲ] = sore, painful, sour, salted
goirteas [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəs] = pain, ache, painfulness
goirtear [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲər] = miser, mean/stingy person
goirte [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲə] = soreness, painfulness, sourness, acerbity, saltiness
goirteachadh [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəxəɣ] = hurting, afflicting, acidifying, making sour, leavening
Manx (Gaelg) gort = acid, bitter, brackish, rank, vinegarish, vinegary, sour, hurt, poignant, acrid, acrimony
gortaghey = hurt, hurting, maim, pain
gortagh = beggarly, frugal, grudging, hurt, meagre, miser

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷorti-, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot). Words from the same root include barmy, furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English, and garstig (rude, nasty, beastly, foul) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (after, behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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