Taking Hold

Words for to take, hold and related things in Celtic languages.

Breton Dancers

Proto-Celtic *gabyeti = to grab, seize, take, hold
*gabaglā = taking
*atigabaglā = distraint (the legal right of a landlord to seize the property of a tenant in the event of nonpayment of rent)
Celtiberian kabizeti = (?)
Gaulish *gabi- = to give (?)
*gabali = taking, seizure
Old Irish (Goídelc) gaibid [ˈɡavʲiðʲ] = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabál = taking
argaib [arˈɡavʲ] = to seize, capture
athgabáil = recovery
congaibid [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
conocaibid [konˈhoɡəvʲ] = to raise, rise, uplift, exalt, extol
fogaibid [foˈɡavʲ] = to find, discover, get, gain, obtain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gaibid = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabáil = taking
athgabáil = the process of recovery of debts, etc. by distraint, plunder, booty
aurgaibid = to seize, capture
congmaid = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) gabh [ɡavʲ/ɡo(ː)] = to take, arrest, go, come
gabháil = taking
aisghabh = to retake, recover possession of
athghabháil = recapture, recovery, re-engagement
gabh mo leithscéal = excuse me
urghabh = to seize, capture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gabh [gav] = take, go, recite, break (in)
ath-ghabh = retake, recover, regain, impound
gabh mo lethsgeul = excuse me, pardon
gabhail [gahal] = taking, lease, tenure, conquest
Manx (Gaelg) gow = to take
gow my leshtal = excuse me, sorry, I beg your pardon
goaill = acceptance, affect, apprehend, apprehension, arrest, capture, catch, contraction, engage, seizure, receive, take
aaghoaill = to recapture, reconquer, re-engage, retake
Proto-Brythonic *gabal- = breadth, side
*gavaɣl = to hold, grasp
Old Welsh gabael = to hold, grasp, grip
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) gauayleu, gauael = to hold, grasp, grip
gauaelant, gauaelu, gavailio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch
adauael, adafael = distraint (in law), distress, pledge
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafael [ˈɡavaɨ̯l/ˈɡaːvai̯l] = to hold, grasp, grip
gafaeladwy = available
gafaelaf, gafaelio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch, grip, arrest, grapple, snatch, seize
gafaeliad = a holding, hold, grasp, capture, attachment, comprehension, adherence, spasm
adafael = distraint (in law), distress, pledge
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gaval = to hold, lay hold of, grasp, have
gavel = a hold, a grasp
Cornish (Kernewek) gavel = capacity, grasp
Old Breton gabael = to hold (?)
adgabael = to recover (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source].

The Spanish word gavilla (sheaf, gang, band) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Late Latin gabella and the Gaulish *gabali (taking, seizure) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include able, debt, debit, doubt and habit in English, avere (to have) in Italian, avoir (to have) in French, and haber (to hold, possess) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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