Sorrow & sadness

Words for sorrow, sadness and related things in Celtic languages.

sad pug

Proto-Celtic *trougos/*trowgo- = sorry, sad, wretched
Old Irish (Goídelc) trúag, tróg = miserable, wretched, emaciated, wretch
trúagdae = miserable, wretched
trógán, trúagán = miserable person, wretch, pauper
trúaige = affliction, compassion, misery, pity, wretchedness
Middle Irish (Gaedhealg) trúag = wretched, pititable, miserable, sad; thin, lean, emaciated; wretch, miserable person
trúagdae, trogdae, trúagdai, troghda = miserable, wretched. piteous
trúagán = miserable person, wretch, pauper
trúagnait, trógnait = wretch, miserable person
trúaige = misery, wretchedness, affliction
trúaigméil = pitiable, sorrowful
Irish (Gaeilge) trua [t̪ˠɾˠuə] = pity, sympathy, compassion, miserable person, wretch; pitiable, miserable, wretched; lean, thin, emaciated
truacánta = piteous, plaintive
truacántacht = piteousness, plaintiveness
truachroíoch = kind-hearted, compassionate, heartrending, piteous
truacht = leanness
atruach = compassionate
truán = miserable person, wretch; thin, emaciated creature, importunate person
truanairt = wretch
truánta = wretched; thin, emaciated
truántacht = wretchedness; thinness, emaciation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) truagh [truəɣ] = abject, forlorn, miserable, pitiful, poor, sorry
truaghan [truəɣan] = poor soul/thing, wretch
truaghag [truəɣag] = poor/pitiful thing, poor wee thing (female)
truaghaileachd [truəɣaləxg] = compassionateness, tender-heartedness
truaghanachd [truəɣən̪ˠəxg] = abjectness, miserableness, wretchedness
truas [truəs] = pity, compassion, sympathy
Manx (Gaelg) truan = misery
truanagh = miserable, mournful, sorrowful person
truanys = misery
treih = abject, deplorable, feeble, forlorn, fragile, miserable, pathetic, piteous, pitiful, regrettable, rueful
treihaght = misery, pitifullness, pitifulness
treihnagh = mournful
treihys = abjection, abjectness, fragility, misery
Gaulish *trugan = wretch
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tru, trv = wretched, miserable, deplorable, pitiful, pathetic
truan = wretch, miserable person
truanu = to take pity, feel compassion
truaneid, truanaidd = wretched, miserable, deplorable
tryanedd, tayyrnedd = wretchedness
trueni = misery, wretchedness, abjectness, degradation
truanus = wretched, miserable, deplorable, poor
trỽch, troch, truch = unfortunate, sad, wretched
Welsh (Cymraeg) tru [trɨː/triː] = wretched, miserable, deplorable, pitiful, pathetic
truan = wretch, miserable person; wretched, miserable, deplorable, pitiful, pathetic, poor, weak
truanaf, truanu = to take pity, feel compassion
truanaidd = wretched, miserable, deplorable, pitiful
truanedd = wretchedness
trueni = misery, wretchedness, abjectness, degradation
truenus = wretched, miserable, deplorable, poor
trwch = unfortunate, sad, wretched, poor; bad, evil, wicked; unfortunate person, wretch, scoundrel
Old Cornish troc = miser
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tru = alas, pity, sad, woe
trueth = pity, compassion
troc = wretched, miser
Cornish (Kernewek) tru = alas
truan = sadly, miserable, unfortunate, wretched
truedh = pity, sympathy
truedhek = sadly, pathetic, pitiful, plaintive, sad
trogh = broken, wretched
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tru = pitiful, wretched, miserable
truant = pitiful, wretched, miserable
trugarez = pity, mercy, forgiveness, thanks, misery
Breton (Brezhoneg) tru = pitiful, wretched, miserable, wretch
trugarez = thank you, mercy, forgiveness
truant = beggar
truanter = cheater, supplicant

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₁- (to rub, turn, drill, pierce). Words from the same roots possibly include truant in English, and truand (crook, gangster, beggar) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *brugnos = saddness, pain
Old Irish (Goídelc) brón [broːn] = sorrow, grief, lamentation, distress, burden
Irish (Gaeilge) brón [bˠɾˠoːnˠ] = sorrow, grief, grieving, lamentation; distress, burden
brónach [ˈbˠɾˠoːnˠəx] = sad, sorrowful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bròn [brɔːn] = grief, sadness, sorrow, mourning, affliction
brònach [ˈbrɔːnəx] = doleful, miserable, rueful, sad, sorrowful; disconsolate
Manx (Gaelg) bran = sorrow, blackness of soul
branagh = mournful, black (as outlook)
Welsh (Cymraeg) brwyn [bruːɨ̯n / brʊi̯n] = sorrow, grief, sadness; sorrowful, grievous, sad, heavy; pensive

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *gʷruHǵʰ-nó-, from *gʷrewHǵʰ- (to bite) + *-nós, or from *bʰreg- (to break) [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) trist [triːst / trɪst] = sad, unhappy, sorrowful, mournful, pensive, downhearted, miserable, anxious
Cornish (Kernewek) trist = sad, mournful
Breton (Brezhoneg) trist = sad

Etymology: from Latin trīstis (sad, unhappy, melancholy, morose), from Proto-Indo-European *tréystis (stubborn, in a bad mood) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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