Happy & fortunate

Words for happy, forunate and related things in Celtic languages.

have a happy weekend!

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sognāwos = well-grown
Old Irish (Goídelc) sona [ˈsona] = happy, fortunate
sonaide = prosperous, fortunate, happy, lucky
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sona = prosperous, fortunate, lucky
sonaide = prosperous, fortunate, happy, lucky
sonaige = happiness
sonann = properous land
Irish (Gaeilge) sona [ˈsˠʊn̪ˠə] = happy, lucky, fortunate
sonaídeach = easy, untroubled
sonas = happiness, good luck, good fortune
sonasach = happy, lucky, fortunate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sona [sɔnə] = content, happy
sonas [sɔnəs] = happiness, contentment
Manx (Gaelg) sonney = affluent, lucky, fortunate, happy

Etymology: from Proto-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same root include gnomon (a pointer on a sundail), ignore, noble, normal, glory in English, the Irish word gnúis (face) in Irish, gnùis (face) in Scottish Gaelic, and gnis (jaw, chin, face) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *lowenos = merry, joyful
Gaulish *Lawenos = name
Proto-Brythonic *llowen = happy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llauen, llewyn, llawen = merry, jovial, glad, cheerful, happy
llawena, llawenu = to make happy, gladden, cheer, delight
llawenhau, llywenhav, lawenhäu = to rejoice, be/make joyful
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawen [ˈɬau̯ɛn / ˈɬau̯an] = merry, jovial, glad, cheerful, happy, blithe, joyful, joyous, jubilant; bringing happiness, pleasant, delightful
llawenaf, llawenau = to make happy, gladden, cheer, delight
llawenaidd = glad, cheerful, happy, pleasant, delightful
llawender = gladness, happiness, joy
llawenhaf, llawenhau = to rejoice, be joyful, be/make glad, be joyous, exult, be cheerful, gladden, cheer (up), hearten
llawenol = glad, cheerful, happy, jubilant
Old Cornish louen = happy
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lowen = glad, joyful, merry
loweneder = joy, mirth
lowene, lowené = joy, bliss, gladness, mirth
lowenec, lowenek = glad, joyful, merry
lowenhe, lowenhé = to cause, rejoice, make/be glad, gladden, comfort
Cornish (Kernewek) lowen [‘lɔwɛn / ‘lu:ɐn] = glad, happy
lowenek [lɔ’wɛnɛk / lə’wɛnɐk] = cheerful, gay, happy, joyful, merry
lowena = bliss, cheer, happiness, joy
lowender = mirth
lowenek = cheerful, happy, joyful, merry
lowenhe = to rejoice, delight, make happy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) louen, laouen = happy, cheerful, cordial, warm
louenhat, louenhaff = to become more cheerful, rejoice
Breton (Brezhoneg) laouen [ˈlɔwːɛn] = happy; willingly, gladly
laouenaat = to rejoice, satisfy
laouenek = friendly, convival

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂w- (to seize, gain, benefit, prize) [source]. Words from the same roots include golud (wealth, riches) in Welsh, luach (value, price, reward) in Irish, lucre and galore in English, and lön (reward, salary, wage) in Swedish [source].

The Welsh word hapus [ˈhapɨ̞s/ˈhapɪs] (happy, cheerful, blessed, satisfactory, fortunate, successful, prosperous) comes from English hap (chance, fortune, luck, fortuitous event), from Middle English hap(pe) (chance, luck, fortune), from Old English ġehæp (fit, convenient) and/or Old Norse happ (chance, good luck) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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