Wagons & Carts

Words for wagons, carts, cars and related things in Celtic languages:

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Proto-Celtic *karros = wagon
Gaulish *karros = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carr = cart, wagon
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carr = cart, waggon
Irish (Gaeilge) carr [kɑːɾˠ / kæːɾˠ] = car
carraeireacht = carting, carriage, haulage
carrán = small cart
carrbhealach = carriageway
carrchlós = car park
otharcharr = ambulance
carr sleamhnáin = sledge
carr róchain = swing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) càr [kar] = car, cart, raft
Manx (Gaelg) carr = car, cab, van
carr laadee = lorry, wagon
carr oanluchkee = = hearse
carr surranse = ambulance
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) car, kar, karr = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) car [kar] = vehicle, car, sled, dray; rack, stand
car a cheffyl = horse-drawn carriage
car caws = cheese rack
car cerdded = go-cart, child’s cart
car trol = cart, wagon
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carios = cart, carriage
Cornish (Kernewek) karr [karː / kær] = car
karr bonk = dodgem
karr ergh = snowmobile
karr klavji = ambulance
karr kreslu = police car
karr slynk = sleigh
karr stret = tram
karr tan = motor-car
kerrik = cart, carriage, buggy
kerrik flogh = baby carriage
Old Breton carr = cart
Middle Breton karr = cart, car, coach, carriage
Breton (Brezhoneg) karr = car, coach, carriage, trailer, vehicle
karr-ar-argad = tank
karr-a-dan = automobile, locomotive
karr-ar-marv = hearse
karr-chalbotat = lorry, truck

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥sós (vehicle), from *ḱers- (to run) [source].

The Gaulish word *karros was borrowed into Latin as carrus (wagon, cart, cartload), which became carro (wagon, cart, van, lorry, truck) in Italian; carro (cart, car, bus) in Spanish; car (bus, coach) in French; car, carriage and chariot in English; and similar words in other languages [source].

Words from the same PIE root include horse in English, hors (mare, female foal, frivolous woman) in Norwegian (Nynorsk), hross (horse) in Icelandic, and currus (chariot, car, wagon) in Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *karbantos = (war) chariot, wagon
Gaulish *karbanton, carbantos = chariot, wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carpat [ˈkarbad] = chariot
cairptech = chariot owner, chariot-fighter
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carpat = war-chariot, car, waggon
carpaitniadh = chariot-fighter
carpat saer/ailtire = chariot-builder
Irish (Gaeilge) carbad [ˈkaɾˠəbˠəd̪ˠ] = chariot
carbadóir = charioteer
fo-charbad = undercarriage
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carbad [karabad] = chariot, coach, carriage, wagon, vehicle, bier, jaw(bone)
carbadach = abounding in chariots, coaches, etc
carbadachd = (act of) driving a chariot
carbadair = charioteer, cab driver, coachman, teamster
carbad-eich = horse carriage
carbad-eiridinn = ambulance
carbad-fànais = spacecraft
carbad-mharbh = hearse
carbad-smàlaidh = fire engine
carbad-smùide = steam locomotive
carbad-suain = sleeping coach
Manx (Gaelg) carbyd = bus, coach, vehicle, bier, hearse
carbyd bee = dining car, restaurant car
carbyd clienney = pram, baby carriage
carbyd-lheeys = ambulance
carbyd-mooghee = fire engine
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerbyt = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) cerbyd [ˈkɛrbɨ̞d / ˈkɛrbɪd] = car, carriage, chariot, wagon, coach; clumsy fellow, bungler
cerbyd agored = open carriage, landau
cerbyd cyflog = hackney-carriage, stage-coach
cerbyd rhyfel = war chariot
cerbydan = small carriage, chaise, gig, cab
cerbydol = vehicular
cerbydwr = wagoner, coachman, charioteer
Old Cornish (Cernewec) cerpit = chariot, wagon
Old Breton cerpit = chariot, wagon
Breton (Brezhoneg) karbed = vehicle
karbed-tan = motor vehicle
karr tredan = electric vehicle

Etymology: possibly related to the Proto-Celtic word *korbos (wagon, basket) [source]. The Brytonic words were borrowed from Old Irish [source].

The Gaulish word carbantos was borrowed into Latin as carpentum (carriage, chariot, wagon, cart), which became charpente (framework, structure) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *wegnos = wagon, cart
*wegnyā = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) fén [fʲeːn] = wagon, cart
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fén = waggon, cart, conveyance of some kind
Irish (Gaeilge) féan [fʲeːnˠ] = wagon, wain, cart
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feun [fian] = cart, wain, chariot
feunair = waggoner
feun-cogaidh = war chariot
feun-mòine = peat cart
Manx (Gaelg) fainagh = carriage, chariot, coach
fainagh cabbil = horsedrawn coach
fainagh-bee = restaurant car
Proto-Brythonic *gweɨn = wagon, cart

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵʰ- (to go, transport) [source]. English words from same PIE root include wagon, weigh, way wain (a four-wheeled cart for hauling loads, usually pulled by horses or oxen), vehicle and vector [source].

There appear to be no descendents of the Proto-Brytonic word *gweɨn in the Brythonic languages, but the Welsh word certwain (cart, wagon, wain) is indirectly related. It comes from the Old English crætwǽn (chariot, wain – lit.”cart-wain”) [source], from cræt / ceart (cart, wagon, chariot), from the PIE *krattijô (basket) [source], and wæġn (wagon, carriage) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bennā, *bondyo = bracelet
Gaulish *benna = carriage
Old Irish (Goídelc) buinne [ˈbun͈ʲe] = circlet, (arm-)ring, bracelet, wattle, wickerwork
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) buinne = circlet, (arm-)ring, bracelet, wattle, wickerwork
Irish (Gaeilge) buinne [ˈbˠɪn̠ʲə] = course of interwoven rods, wale; hoop; ridge; welt (of shoe); flange (of vessel); band, bracelet; shroud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) benn, ben = cart, wagon, carriage, wain
benneit = cart-load, wain-load
Welsh (Cymraeg) ben = cart, wagon
bennaid = cart-load, wain-load

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰendʰ- (to bind, bond). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Latin benna (a kind of carriage), include benne (bin, skip, dump truck, barrow, cable car) in French, bin in English, and benna (bucket, grab) in Italian [source].

English words from the same PIE root include band, bandage, bandana, bend, bind, bond, bonnet, bundle, funicular, tulip and turban [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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