Words for five and related things in Celtic languages:


Proto-Celtic *kʷenkʷe = five
*kʷenkʷetos = fifth
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóic [koːɡʲ] = five
cóiced [ˈkoːɡʲeð] = fifth
cóicer = five people, five things
coíca = fifty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóic, cúic = five
cóiced, cúced, coigid = fifth
cóicer, cóicir, cuicir = five people/things
cóic deac = fifteen
coíca, coícad, cóic deich = fifty
Irish (Gaeilge) cúig [kuːɟ] = five
cúigiú [kuːˈɟuː/ˈkuːɟu] = fifth
cúigear [ˈkuːɟəɾˠ] = five people/things
cúige = one of five divisions of Ireland, province
caoga = fifty
cúigbhliantúil = five-yearly, quinquennial
cúigchodach = fivefold, quintuple
cúigréad = quintet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còig [koːgʲ] = five
còigeamh(5ᵐʰ) fifth (4ᵗʰ))
còignear [koːgʲn̪ʲər] = five (people)
còigearan [koːgʲəran] = quintuplet
còig-fillte = quintuple, fivefold
caogad [kɯːgəd] = fifty
Manx (Gaelg) queig [kwɛɡ] = five
queigagh, queigoo = fifth
queigad = fifty
queigin, queig-lhiatteean = pentagon
queigane = quintuplet
queig-filley = quintuple, five-fold
Proto-Brythonic *pɨmp [pɨmp] = five
*pɨmped [pɘmˈpɛːd] = fifth
Gaulish pimpe, pempe = five
pimpetos = fifth
Old Welsh pimp = five
petguaret = fifth
pimmunt = fifty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pimp, pym(p), pvmp, pum(p) = five
pimphet, pemhet, pimhed, pymhed, pymhet = fifth
pymthec = fifteen
pymwnt, pumhwnt, pemhwnt, pummwnt = fifty
pvmplyc, pymplyg, pumplyg = quintuple, fivefold
Welsh (Cymraeg) pump [pɨ̞mp/pɪmp] = five
pumed [pɛdˈwɛrɨ̞ð] (5ed) = fifth
pumplyg = quintuple, fivefold, folded five times
pumpunt = five pounds, five-pound note, fiver
pedwaraid = set of five, fivesome
pumseiniol = pentatonic (music)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pymp, pemp = five
pympes = fifth
pymthec, pemdhac = fifteen
Cornish (Kernewek) pymp = five
pympes, pempes = fifth
pymthek, pemdhek = fifteen
pympbys, pempbes = starfish (“five finger”)
Old Breton pemp = five
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pemp, puemb = five
pempet, peempet, pempvet = fifth
pempaat = to group into five
pempkement = quintuple
pempkementiñ = to quintuple
pempkogneg = pentagon
Breton (Brezhoneg) pemp [pɛmp/pɛ̃mp] = five
pemp(v)et = fifth
pemzek = fifteen
pempad = quintet
pempkorneg = pentagon

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷe (five) [source].

English words from the same roots include five, fifth, fifty, fifty, quintet, and words beginning with penta-, such as pentathlon and pentameter [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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