Grace and Favour

Words for grace, virtue and related words in Celtic languages.

Words for grace and virtue in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *ɸratom = grace, virtue, good fortune
Old Irish (Goídelc) rath = gift, goods, grace, luck, property, prosperity
Irish (Gaeilge) rath [ɾˠɑh/ɾˠa/ɾˠah] = bestowal, grant, grace, favour, gift, bounty; prosperity; abundance; usefulness, good
rathaigh = to prosper, succeed, thrive, make successful
rathúil = prosperous, successful, thriving; fortunate, lucky
rathúlacht = prosperousness, successfulness
rathúnas = prosperity, plenty, abundance
rathúnasach = prosperous, abundant
anrath = ill-luck
anrathach = unlucky
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rath [r̪ˠa] = good fortune/luck, prosperity, success
rathadach = fortunate, auspicious, prosperous
rathmhor = fortunate, auspicious, prosperous
rathach = fortunate, auspicious, prosperous
droch-rath = back luck/fortune
Manx (Gaelg) raah, rah = good luck, prosperity, well-doing
raah mie = prosperity
ard-raah = zenith of prosperity
gyn raah = unsuccessful
cur rah er = to prosper
Old Welsh rat = grace, blessing, favour,
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rat, rad = grace, blessing, favour,
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhad [r̥aːd] = grace, blessing, favour, generosity, bounty, goodness, graciousness, talent, gift; cheap, free, unpaid, valueless, poor, inferior, gracious, giving, generous
rhad ac am ddim = free (of charge), without cost, unpaid
rhad Duw = the grace of God, God’s blessing
rhad fel baw / rhad mochyn = dirt cheap
yn rhad = as a gift, free (of charge), unpaid, cheaply, freely, unrestrained
rhadaf, rhadu = to bestow grace upon, bless, give generously, to make cheap
rhadineb = grace, graciousness
rhadwr = generous man
Cornish (Kernewek) ras = virtue
meur ras = thank you
rasek = graceful
diras = graceless
Old Breton rad = thought, reflection
Breton (Brezhoneg) rat = thought, reflection

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸar-/*ɸarnati (to bestow), from the Proto-Indo-European *perh₃- (bestow, give) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language,, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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