Words for apples and related words, in Celtic languages.

Apples / afalau

Proto-Celtic *abalom = apple
*abalnā = apple tree
Gaulish abalon, aballon = apple, apple tree
Old Irish (Goídelc) ubull, uball [ˈu.vul͈/ˈu.val͈] = apple
aball = apple tree
Irish (Gaeilge) úll [uːl̪ˠ] = apple; ball-and-socket joint; globular object, ball
úllach = bearing apples, abounding in apples
úllachán = little apple, little ball (of thread, etc)
úlllgharraí, úllghort, úllord = orchard
úllghlas = apple-green
úll óir = golden apple, precious thing
abhaill = apple tree
fia-úll = crab-apple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ubhal [u.əl̪ˠ] = apple
ubhal-chrann, abhaill = apple tree
ubhal-cridhe = tomato
ubhal-fiadhain, fiadh-ubhal, searbh-ubhal = crab/wild apple (malus sylvestris)
ubhal-ghort = apple orchard
dearc-ubhal = oak apple
lionn-ubhal = (apple) cider
òr-ubhal = orange
Manx (Gaelg) ooyl = apple, pommel
ooylagh = orchard
billey ooyl = apple tree
ooyl feie = crab-apple
ooyl ghraih = tomato
ooyl ghraney, ooyl ghrineagh = pomegranate
Proto-Brythonic *aβal = apple
*aβaln = apple tree
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aual, aval, afal = apple
auallen, avallen, yfallen = apple tree
Welsh (Cymraeg) afal [ˈaval/ˈaːval] = apple
afallen = apple tree
afal cariad = tomato, love-apple
afal cwins = quince
afal drain = haw, hawthorn berry
afal gwlanog = peach
afal sur (bach) = crab apple
Cornish (Kernewek) aval [ˈaval/ˈævɐl] = apple
avalen = apple tree
aval briansen = larynx
aval dor = potato
aval gwlanek = peach
aval kerenja/kerensa = tomato
aval lagas = eyeball
aval paradhis = grapefruit
aval saben = pine cone
Old Breton abal = apple
Middle Breton aval [ˈɑː.val] = apple
Breton (Brezhoneg) aval = apple
avalwez = apple tree
aouraval = orange
greunaval = pomegranate
aval-douar = potato

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ébōl (apple), which is also the root of words for apple in Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Germanic and Italic languages [source].

Avalon, the legendary island in the west to which King Arthur was taken after the Battle of Camlann, probably comes from the same root, via the Latin Insula Avallonis – the name used by Geoffrey of Monmonth in his Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136). Avalon may have been the Isle of Man, or the Isle of Arran, which were known as Emain Ablach in Old Irish poems [source.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

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