Celtic cognates

This page contains words that are cognate in all or most of the six modern Celtic languages.

Click on the English versions that are links and you will be taken to the Celtiadur, where you can see what each word means, and how some of them are pronounced. There are also details of related words and expressions, and words in older versions of the Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh and Old Irish. More Celtic Cognates


Other words

These words are cognate in all six Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
aingeal aingeal aile angel eledh ael fire
angel
ainm ainm ennym enw hanow anv name
anáil anail ennal anadl anal anal breath
anam anam annym enaid enev ene soul
spirit
aois aois eash oes
oed
oos
ooj
oad age
beatha beatha beaghey bywyd bewnans buhez life
beo beò bio byw bew bev alive
living
bith* bith beays byd bys bed world
being
existence
bord bòrd boayrd bwrdd
bwrd
bord
bordh
bourzh table
board
brí brìgh bree bri bri bri strength
essence
power
honour
dignity
bua buaidh booie budd budh buz victory
profit
caí caoidh coe cwyn kynvan kañv lament
mourning
weeping
Cáisg Càisg Caisht Pasg Pask Pask Easter
carcair carcair carchyr carchar carhar* karc'har prison
cath cath cah cad kas kad battle
céim ceum keim cam kamm kamm step
ciorcal cearcall kiarkyl cylch kelgh
kylgh
klec'h circle
ring
cistin cistin kishteen cegin kegin kegin kitchen
clog clag clag cloch clogh kloc'h bell
clock
clú cliù goo clyw klew klev hearing
fame
cúl cùl cooyl cil kil kil back
corner
eochair iuchair ogher agoriad key
féan feun fainagh gwain goen
gweyn
gouin wagon
cart
chariot
sheath
féile fèil feaill
feailley
gŵyl gool gouel feast
festival
feis fèis feish gwest gwester guest* festival
entertainment
guest
ficheall fidhcheall feeal gwyddbwyll gwydhbol gwezboell chess
flaith flath flah gwlad gwlas
gulas
glad sovereignty
country
nation
fleá fleadh fleah gwledd gwledh gloê feast
banquet
gabhal gobhal goal gafl gowl gaol fork
crotch
gable
gair
gáir
goir
gàir
gerr gair
gawr
ger ger call
shout
word
geil geil gyndyr gwellt gwels geot
gwelt
grass
graze
gríos grìos gree gwres gwres gwrez warmth
heat
icht aiteam eggys iaith yeth yezh language
people
leabhar leabhar lioar llyfr lyver levr book
liach liogh lheegh llwy lo loa spoon
ladle
marbh marbh merriu
marroo
marw
marwolaeth
mernans marv dead
death
deceased
Nollaig Nollaig Nollick Nadolig Nadelik Nedeleg Christmas
olann olann ollan gwlân gwlan glaon wool
póg pòg paag pocyn poccuil* pok kiss
rann
roinn
rann
roinn
rheynn rhan radn rann division
part
rath rath raah
rah
rhad ras rat grace
virtue
rún rùn roon rhin
cyfrin
rin
kevrin
rin secret
mystery
rúsc rùsg roost rhisgl rusken rusk bark
beehive
saighead saighead side saeth seth saezh arrow
seo seo shoh hwn
hon
hyn
ma mañ this
seol seòl shiaull hwyl gool gouel sail
sin sin shen hwnnw
honno
hynny
homma
honna
se that
siabhainn* siabhann sheeabin sebon sebon soavon soap
suan suain saveen hun hun hun sleep
slumber
spiorad spiorad spyrryd ysbryd sperys
spyrys
spered soul
life
spirit
sráid sràid straid stryd stret straed street
alley
highway
tábla tàbla taabyl tabl tabel taol table
board
táille taille tailley tâl
talaith
tal tailh fare
fee
tally
teach taigh thie chi ti house
teanga teanga çhengey tafod taves
tavas
teod language
tongue
tribe
people
teas teas çhiass tes tes tes heat
warmth
tine teine çhenney tân tan tan fire
lightning
tuí tugha thoo to to to roof
thatch

These words are cognate in some of the Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
ábhar adhbar oyr material
matter
reason
adhal adhal aall fork
trident
allwedd alhwedh alc'hwez key
anseo an-seo ayns shoh yma omma amañ here
ansin an-sin ayns shen yna ena aze there
ansiúd (thall ansin) an-siud ayns shid draw
acw
yn tre ahont yonder
bás bàs basse death
caint cainnt caaynt speech
to speak
talk
casúr casar casoor hammer
clár clàr claare clawr kleur board
table
cover
cló clò clou clo klaou bolt
lock
nail
colum* cwlwm kolm
kolmen
skoulmoù
skoulm
knot
cuach cuach cawg cup
dish
bowl
cudd kudh kuzh secret
hidden
cusan kussyn kiss
cwsg kosk kousked sleep
slumber
cyllell kollell kontell knife
damhna damhna defnydd devnydh danvez matter
material
substance
díon dìon jeen protection
waterproof
roof
doras doras dorrys drws daras door
dôr dor door
éag eug angau ankow ankow dead
death
deceased
fadhb fadhb uddan oddf knot
lump
problem
fáilte fàilte failt welcome
fios fios fys gwŷs knowledge
information
forc forca fforc forgh forc'h fork
líth lid festival
prosperity
ceremony
morthwyl morthol morzhol hammer
mullach mullach mullagh top
roof
óir oir oyr for
because
reason
sanas sanas sannish hanes hanas whisper
history
secret
saol saoghal seihll world
existence
lifetime
scian sgian skyeen ysgïen
sgien
skejañ knife
to sever
snaidhm snaidhm sniem nadd nascañ knot
carving
hinder
spúnóg spàin spein spoon
stuth stoo stwff stoff material
stuff
substance
te teth çheh heat
umha umha ooha efydd copper
bronze

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Celtic cognates

Adjectives | Animals | Birds | Clothes | Colours | Conjunctions | Directions | Food and Drink | Musical terms | Numbers | Time expressions | Parts of the body | People | Pronouns | Sea creatures | Trees and Plants | Landscape | Verbs | Weather | Metals | Other words

Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.

Links

Stòr-fhaclan Co-dhàimheil Ceilteach (Database of Celtic cognates)
http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/faclair/scc/lorg.php

McBain's Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language
http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Tartessian, Welsh

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