Celtic cognates

This page contains words that are cognate in all or some of the six modern Celtic languages.

Click on the English versions that are links and you will be taken to the Celtiadur, where you can see what each word means, and how some of them are pronounced. There are also details of related words and expressions, and words in older versions of the Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh and Old Irish. More Celtic Cognates


Other words

These words are cognate in all six Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
aingeal aingeal aile angel eledh ael fire
angel
ainm ainm ennym enw hanow anv name
anáil anail ennal anadl anal anal breath
anam anam annym enaid enev ene soul
spirit
aois aois eash oes
oed
oos
ooj
oad age
ár àr haar aer ar*
hâr*
air* slaughter
battle
barr bàrr baare bar barr barr top
point
summit
beatha beatha beaghey bywyd bewnans buhez life
beo beò bio byw bew bev alive
living
bior bior birr
byr
bêr ber* ber point
thorn
spear
bith* bith beays byd bys bed world
being
existence
bord bòrd boayrd bwrdd
bwrd
bord
bordh
bourzh table
board
both bothan
bùth
bwaane
bwaag
bwd
bwth
bod* bod booth
hut
cottage
brath brath brah brad bras barad betray(al)
treachery
conspiracy
deception
brí brìgh bree bri bri bri strength
essence
power
honour
dignity
brugh brugh brogh bro bro bro country
territory
broch
bua buaidh booie budd budh buz victory
profit
bun bun bun bôn ben ben base
foundation
caí caoidh coe cwyn kynvan keuziañ lament
mourning
weeping
Cáisg Càisg Caisht Pasg Pask Pask Easter
caileann cailindha caillyn calan kalan kala
kaland
calends
1st of month
carcair carcair carchyr carchar carhar* karc'har prison
jail
carbad carbad carbyd cerbyd cerpit* karbed chariot
car
carr càr carr car karr karr car
chariot
wagon
cath cath cah cad kas kad battle
céim ceum keim cam kamm kamm step
Ceilteach
Seilt
Ceilteach Celtiagh Celt Kelt kelt Celt
ciorcal cearcall kiarkyl cylch kelgh
kylgh
klec'h circle
ring
clog clag clag cloch klogh kloc'h bell
clock
clú cliù goo clyw klew klev hearing
fame
cré criadh cray pridd pri pri clay
soil
ash
criathar criathar creear crwydr kroder krouer sieve
riddle
wandering
crith crith crie cryd kren kren fever
trembling
shaking
cúl cùl cooyl cil kil kil back
corner
curach curach curragh corwg koroug korac'h coracle
currach
diaidh dèidh jei diwedd diwedh diwezh end
after
dréacht dreachd draght
dreaght
darn darn darn part
piece
díoghail dìoghail jeeyl dial dial dial revenge
vengence
damage
driocht draoidheachd druaight derwyddiaeth drewydhieth drouizelezh magic
sorcery
druidism
feall feall foall gwall gwall gwall deceit
treachery
mistake
defect
féile fèil feaill
feailley
gŵyl gool gouel feast
festival
feis fèis feish gwest gwester guest* festival
entertainment
guest
ficheall fidhcheall feeal gwyddbwyll gwydhbol gwezboell chess
flaith flath flah gwlad gwlas
gulas
glad prince
lordship
country
nation
fleá fleadh fleah gwledd gwledh gloê feast
banquet
ga gath goull gwayw guw goaf spear
javelin
beam
gair
gáir
goir
gàir
gerr gair
gawr
ger ger call
shout
word
gairm gairm gerrym garm garm garm call
shout
yell
gal gal gaal
gall
gâl gal gal* ardour
vapour
enemy
geil geil gyndyr gwellt gwels geot
gwelt
grass
graze
gríos grìos gree gwres gwres gwrez warmth
heat
lathach lathach lathar
laagh
llaid leys lec'hid mud
mire
swamp
leabhar leabhar lioar llyfr lyver levr book
leath leth lieh lled les led half
breadth
width
luan luan lune llun lun lun Monday
moon
marbh marbh merriu
marroo
marw
marwolaeth
mernans marv dead
death
deceased
méid meud mooad maint myns ment size
amount
quantity
Nollaig Nollaig Nollick Nadolig Nadelik Nedeleg Christmas
neart neart niart nerth nerth nerzh strength
might
power
force
olann olann ollan gwlân gwlan glaon wool
ord òrd oardyr
ordyr
urdd urdh urzh order
sequence
peaca peaca peccah pech pegh pec'h sin
guilt
póg pòg paag pocyn poccuil* pok kiss
rann
roinn
rann
roinn
rheynn rhan radn rann division
part
rath rath raah
rah
rhad ras rat grace
virtue
rún rùn roon rhin
cyfrin
rin
kevrin
rin secret
mystery
roth roth roar rhod ros rod wheel
bicycle
rúsc rùsg roost rhisgl rusken rusk bark
beehive
saighead saighead side saeth seth saezh arrow
samhail samhail
samhla
soyl hafal haval hañvalat likeness
model
similarity
scafa sgiof
sgoth
sgib
skiff (y)sgraff skath skof boat
skiff
scioból sgiobal skibbalt ysgubor skiber skiber barn
seo seo shoh this
seol seòl shiaull hwyl gool gouel sail

síth
sìth
sìoth
shee hedd hedh hez peace
mound
fairy
sin sin shen hwn
hon
hyn
henn henn* that
this
siabhainn* siabhann sheeabin sebon sebon soavon soap
slat slat slat llath lath lazh stick
rod
staff
solas solas sollys golau golow gouloù light
flame
suan suain saveen hun hun hun sleep
slumber
spiorad spiorad spyrryd ysbryd sperys
spyrys
spered soul
life
spirit
sráid sràid straid stryd stret straed street
alley
highway
stábla stàball stabyl ystafell stevel staul* stable
room
tábla tàbla taabyl tabl tabel taol table
board
táille tàille tailley tâl
talaith
tal tailh fare
fee
tally
teach taigh thie chi ti house
teanga teanga çhengey tafod taves
tavas
teod language
tongue
tribe
people
teas teas çhiass tes tes tes heat
warmth
tine teine çhenney tân tan tan fire
lightning
toll toll towl twll toll toull hollow
empty
hole
tonn tonn tonn ton ton tonn wave
billow
tréan
treise
trèine
treise
treun
trean trych trygh trec'h strong(er)
might
brave
conquest
superior
trócaire tròcair trocair trugar
trugaredd
tregeredh trugar*
trugarez
merciful
pity
thanks
tuí tugha thoo to to to roof
thatch
uamhan uabhann owan ofn own ovn fear
dread
uamhanach uabhannach owanagh ofnog ownek aonik fearful
dreadful
timid
uath
fuath
uabhas
fuath
feoh uthr euth euz horror
dread
fright

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These words are cognate in some of the Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
ábhar adhbar oyr material
matter
reason
anseo an-seo ayns shoh yma omma amañ here
ansin an-sin ayns shen yna ena aze there
ansiúd an-siud ayns shid yno yn tre ahont yonder
annwyd anwos anoued cold
chill
awen awen awen muse
inspiration
imagination
bád bàta baatey bad bag boat
basc* basc* baich begh bec'h load
burden
bás bàs basse death
beannacht beannachd bannaght bendith bennath bennozh blessing
benediction
bedd bedh bez grave
ditch
bel bell war
tummult
béarla
Béarla
Beurla Baarle speech
English
blaosc plaosg bleayst ballasg plisken shell
body
husk
bréag breug breag lie
falsehood
Brigit brain(t) bryntin
brentin
brient privilege(d)
honour
briocht lled(f)rith brith* charm
spell
enchantment
bruth bruth brwd bredion* broud heat
hot(ness)
ardent
buinne ben cart
wagon
wattle
byson bysow bizou ring
jewel
cábán caban cabbane caban koban cabin
hut
booth
cáin càin fine
tax
duty
caint cainnt caaynt speech
to speak
talk
caladh caladh calloo
callee
harbour
landing place
caoin caoin keayn cwyn can* lament
weep
complaint
anguish
cegin kegin kegin kitchen
cistin cistin kishteen kitchen
clár clàr claare clawr kleur board
table
cover
cogadh cogadh caggey war
fighting
coir coire caredd cara* karez mistake
sin
colg colg caulg col
coly
cola
kolgh husk
prickle
bristle
colum* cwlwm kolm
kolmen
skoulmoù
skoulm
knot
cruth cruth croo pryd shape
form
cuire cordd kordh tribe
clan
troop
cuas cuas cau kew kev cavity
hollow
crypt
cudd kudh kuzh secret
hidden
cumasc cumeasg cymysg kemmysk kemmesk mix(ture)
tumult
blend(ed)
cusan kussyn kiss
cwch kok kouc'h boat
beehive
cwsg kosk kousked sleep
slumber
daigh daigh goddeith flame
fire
pain
dáil dàil dadl
dawl
dadhel dael meeting
assembly
argument
damhna damhna defnydd devnydh danvez matter
material
substance
dealg dealg jialg dala delc* needle
pin
sting
deatach deatach jaagh smoke
vapour
dán dàn daan dawn donezon poem
gift
faculty
díon dìon jeen protection
waterproof
roof
dlí dlighe dyled dlead law
debt
duty
doras doras dorrys drws daras door
dôr dor door
dùth dooie place
natural
duais duais gift
prize
reward
éad eud ead eiddig (?) jealousy
envy
zeal
eagla eagal aggle fear
horror
éasca èasga eayst moon
eire eire errey arau load
burden
éag eug angau ankow ankow dead
death
deceased
fad fad foddid length
distance
duration
fadhb fadhb uddan oddf knot
lump
problem
fáilte fàilte failt welcome
fáinne fàinne fainey ring
circle
coil
féan feun fainagh wagon
cart
chariot
ffenestr fenester prenestr
fenestr
window
fiabhras fiabhras fever
ficheall fiodhcheall feeal gwyddbwyll gwydhbol gwezboell chess
fios fios fys gwŷs knowledge
information
fochraig gwobr gober gopr prize
reward
fee
fos fois gwas rest
relaxation
abode
fraigh fraigh achwre wall
palisade
fence
fuath fuath feoh fearful
horror
terror
fuinneog uinneag uinnag window
gealach gealach giallagh moon
gor gor gôr gor pus
light
to warm
gnách gnàchach customary
usual
familiar
gnáth gnàth gnawd gnas custom
habit
quality
hanner hanter hanter half
hiraeth hireth hiraezh longing
homesick(ness)
melancholy
hud hud hud magic
icht* iaith yeth yezh language
people
ionadh iongnadh angnawd
annawd
unknown
obscure
unusual
surprise
iontas iongantas yindys wonder
surprise
admiration
láib làb loub mud
mire
slime
láidir làidir lajer strong
powerful
lasair lasair lossyr llachar bright
shining
flame
leas leus lossey light
ray
blister
léibheann llwyfan stage
terrace
líon lìon llin lin lin flax
lint
léann léigheann llên lien lenn to read
reading
literature
learning
leastar leastar llestr lester lestr vessel
ship
cup
vase
léigh leugh lhaih lleaf
lleu
to read
literature
liathróid liathroid* ball
sphere
líth lid festival
prosperity
ceremony
lloer loor loar moon
long long lhong llong ship
vessel
longfort long-phort lhong-phurt seaport
camp
stronghold
ma my mar mar if
múch mwg mog mog smoke
fume(s)
fire
mullach mullach mullagh top
roof
nae noe new nev boat
trough
nath nath nâd song
poem
knowledge
nimh nimh nieu poison
venom
nod nòd nod nos not note
mark
symbol
ocras acras acc(y)rys hunger
desire
oráid arawt areth eured prayer
óir oir oyr for
because
reason
príosún prìosan pryssoon prison prizon prison
pís* pwys poos pouez weight
heavy
important
réilig réilig
réileag
ruillick
rhullick
graveyard
ossuary
rian rian rane course
path
method
river
sabhall sabhal soalt barn
granary
Samhain Samhain Sauin
Souney
Halloween
November
sanas sanas sannish hanes hanas whisper
history
secret
saol saoghal seihll world
existence
lifetime
séad
seoid
seud chwant hwans c'hoant desire
jewel
sealbh sealbh shelloo (h)elw luck
fortune
profit
síbín sibein shebeen shebeen
illicit pub
sith-* hyd hes hed length
long
extent
slaod slaod sleayd layer
raft
trudge
slaodach slaodach sleaydagh flowing
slow
trailing
smúit smùid smooid smoke
fume
steam
snaidhm snaidhm sniem nadd nascañ knot
carving
hinder
snas snas finish
polish
elegance
snáth snàth snaie neud thread
fibre
stuth stoo stwff stoff material
stuff
substance
tart tart taart tarth thirst
dryness
mist
te teth çheh heat
toit toit toghan smoke
vapour
steam
tonn tonn ton ton* tonn surface
land
skin
troid trod troddan fight
quarrel
uaigh uaigh oaie
oaye
grave
tomb
ualach uallach burden
load
uath uath uthr euth euzh fearful
horror
dread
urnaí ùrnaigh yeearree prayer

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Celtic cognates

Complete Cognates, Partial Cognates . Cognates arranged thematically: Adjectives | Animals | Birds | Clothes | Colours | Conjunctions | Countries | Directions | Food and Drink | Landscape | Languages | Metals | Musical terms | Numbers | Parts of the body | People | Pronouns | Prepositions | Sea creatures | Time expressions | Trees and Plants | Verbs | Weather | Tools | Other words | Names

Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh

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