Fearful dread

Words for fear, dread and related words in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *oβnus/*obnu- = fear
*exsoβnos = fearless
Gaulish *exsoβnos = fearless
Old Irish (Goídelc) omun [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, dread, afraid
airomun = great fear
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ómun, omun, ómain, óman, úama(i)n, úamun = fear, afraid, apprehensive, fearful, terrible
omnach = afraid, easily frightened, timid, fearful, fear-inspiring
esamain, essamain = fearless, bold, daring
Irish (Gaeilge) uamhan = fear, awe, dread, terror
uamhnach = dreadful, terrifying, fearful, timorous
uamhnacht = dreadfulness, terror, fearfulness, timorousness
uamhnaigh = to frighten, terrify, become afraid, fear, dread
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhann [uəvən̪ˠ] = dread, terror, horror
uabhannach [uəvən̪ˠəx] = terrible, horrible, astounding, shocking
Manx (Gaelg) owan = dread, fright
owanagh = fearful, frightening, frightful
Proto-Brythonic *oβn [oβn] = fear
*exoβn [ɛxˈoβn] = fearless, bold
*exoβneð = fearlessness, boldness, confidence
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ovn, ofuyn, ofyn, ofn = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful
ovynna, ofni, ofnaf = to fear
ofnedic, ofnedig, ovanedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ovnawc, ofnauc, ofynawc = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
ehon, ehovyn, ehofyn = fearless
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofn [ɔvn/ˈoːvɔn] = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnad = (a state/cause of) fear or anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful, dreadul, formidable, awesome
ofnaf, ofni = to fear, be afraid, hold in awem respect, revere; to frighton, terrify, scare
ofnedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ofnog = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
eofn = fearless, dauntless, brave, courageous
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) own = fear, dread
owna = to fear, dread, be afraid
ownec, ownek = a timid person, a fearful fellow, a coward
Cornish (Kernewek) own = alarm, fear, fright, scare
ownek = afraid, alarmed, cowardly, fearful, scared, terrified,
ownek, owenoges = coward
ownekhe = to intimidate
ownekheans = intimidation
ownus = apprehensive
Middle Breton (Brezonec) aoun, oun, eunë = fear
aounic, aounich, aonic = timid
aounus, eunus = fearful
Breton (Brezhoneg) aon [ɔ̃n] = fear
aonik = timid
aonikaat = to make or become timid
aoniñ = frightened, scared
aonus = fearful
dizaon = fearless
dizaoniñ = to stave off fear
rouzaon =fright

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- (to constrict, tighten). [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸowtus, *awtos, *owtos = horror, fear
Old Irish (Goídelc) úath [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, horror, terror
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úath, uath = fear, horror, terror, spectre, phantom, terrible, horrible
úathach, uathach, uathbas = horrible, dreadful
úathmar, uathmar = dreadful, terrifying, horrible, awful
airúath, erúath = dreadfulness, terribleness. terror, dread
fúath, fuath = hatred, abhorrence
fúathmar, fuathmhar = hateful, odious
Irish (Gaeilge) uath [uə(h)] = horrible thing, horror (literary)
uafás = horror, terror, astonishment, vast number or amount
uafásach = horrible, terrible, vast, astonishing
fuath [fˠuə/fˠɪə] = hate, hatred
fuafar = hateful, hideous, odious
fuathaigh = to hate, abandon through dislike
fuathaitheoir = hater
fuathú = to hate, abhorrence, dislike, distaste
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhas [uəh] = dread, terror
uabhasach [uəvəsəx] = horrible, terrible, awful, dire, dreadful, destructive; very, terribly
uabhasaich [uəvəsɪç] = horrity, appal
uabhasachd [uəvəsəxg] = terribleness, awfulness, dreadfulness, horribleness, abominableness
fuath [fuə] = hatred, aversion, antipathy, spectre, the fairies
fuathach [fuəhəx] = abhorrent, detestable, loathsome
fuathasach = dreadful, horrible, wonderful
Manx (Gaelg) feoh = abhorrence, antipathy, aversion, disgust, hatred, loathing, phobia
feohdagh = abhorrent, abominable, execrable, filthy, hateful, nauseous
feohdoil = abhorrent, disgusting, hateful, horrible, horrid, invidious, loathsome
Proto-Brythonic *ʉθ, *ọθ = horror
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) vthir, uthyr, vthyr = fearful, dreadful, awful, terrible
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze
uthraidd, vthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing
uthred, uthret = horror
vthrawg = fearful, dreadful
uthrol, vthrawl, uthrawl = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Welsh (Cymraeg) uthr = fearful, terrible, tremendous, mighty, overbearing, cruel, wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze, be astonished, terrify
uthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent, frightful, dreadful
uthrog = fearful, dreadful
uthrol = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) euth = fright, horror
uth = horror, fright, terror, awfulness
uthec, uthyc = horible, frightful, terrible, awful
uthecter, utheker = horror, frightfulness
Cornish (Kernewek) euth = horror, panic, terror
euthega = to terrify
euthekter = terror
euthvil = monster
euthyk = abominable, awful, frightful, ghastly, horrible
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euz, eah, êuz, heuz = disgust, horror, aversion, fear
euzic, euzyc = horrible, hideous
Breton (Brezhoneg) euzh = fright
euzhadenn, euzhden = monster (person)
euzhvil = monster (animal)
euzhwrac’h = chimera

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pew-. Possibly related to *oβnus (fear) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ecla = dread, fear
ecal = cautious, fearful, timid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ecla [ˈeɡlə] = fear, dread
ecal, egal = fearful, timorous
eclach = fearful, causing or inspiring fear, dreaded
ainecla, airecla = great fear, terror
Irish (Gaeilge) eagla [ˈaɡəl̪ˠə/ˈaɡlˠə] = fear
eagal = fearful, timorous (person)
eagalach =fearful, afraid, apprehensive, timid
eagalaí = fearfulness
eagalaigh = to become afraid, be afraid of, fear, frighten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eagal [egəl̪ˠ] = fear, fright, timidity
eagalach [egəl̪ˠəx] = fearful, timid, frightful, timorous, frightening, alarming
eagalach feagalach = hairy scary
eagalta [egəl̪ˠdə] = fearful
eagalachd [egəl̪ˠəxg] = terribleness, dreadfulness
eagalan = little coward
Manx (Gaelg) aggle = fear
agglagh = fearful, afraid
agglee = to become afraid, be afraid, fear, appall

Etymology: from Old Irish ess- (ex-, out, dis-), from Proto-Celtic *exs (out), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs (out); and Old Irish gal (ardour, fury, valour), from Proto-Celtic *galā (might, ability), from *galnati (to be able), from Proto-Indo-European *gelH- (to be able, can) [source].

Words meaning to be able to in Brythonic languages, such as gallu in Welsh, come from the same roots [more details], as does the Irish word gal (ardour, valour, fury, vapour, steam) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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