Mighty Abilities

Words for might, ability and related things in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *galā = might, ablity
*galnati = to be able, can
Old Irish (Goídelc) gal [ɡal] = battle-ardor, stean, valour. Appears in male names, such as Congal, Donngal and Fergal.
dígal [ˈdʲiːɣal] = punishment;, revenge, vengeance
fingal = kinslaying, parricide, fratricide
fogal = attack, damage, pillaging, plundering, trepass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gal = warlike ardor, fury, valour, heat, fury; steam, vapour, mist
armgal = warlike bravery
bonngal = (act of) trampling
congal = conflict, fight, attack
dígal = avenging, punishing, vengeance, punishment
fogal = to attack, damage, injure
Irish (Gaeilge) gal [ɡal̪ˠ] = (warlike) ardour, valour, fury; vapour, steam, boiling; puff, whiff; fit, bout, turn; demand
galach = valiant man, warrior; boaster, blusterer; ardent, valiant; vaporous, steaming, boiling hot
galacht = ardency, valour
galaigh = to vapourize, steam, evaporate, volatilize
galán = puff, whiff; crane-fly, daddy-longlegs
díoghail = revenge, vengeance, punishment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gal [ɡal̪ˠ] = burst of light/heat, ardour, valour, fury, vapour, steam
galach = ardent, valiant, brace, strong, furious, steaming, vaporous
galan = burst, blast, baying
dìoghail [dʲiə.al] = revenge, vengeance
Manx (Gaelg) gaal, gall = vapour
jeeyll, jeeill [ˈdʲiːɣal] = damage, harmfulness, havoc, injury, prejudice, vandalism
Proto-Brythonic *gal = enemy, adversary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gal = enemy, adversary
Welsh (Cymraeg) gâl = enemy, adversary; enmity, hatred; passion; valour, boldness
galanas = blood-feud, enmity, hatred, slaughter, massacre
gallaf, gallu = to be able to, to have power (to)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gal = rust, evil, wickedness, a wicked fellow
gallogec = powerful, mighty
gallos, galloys, gallus = power, might, authority
gallosec = powerful, mighty, able
galluidoc = able, potent
gally = to be able, may, can
Cornish (Kernewek) gal = outcat, villain
gallojek, gallosek = capable, capable, mighty, potent, powerful
gallos = to be able to, can, ability, might, power, know-how, capability
gallosedh = power
Old Breton gal = violent, intense, urgent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gal = violent, intense, urgent
galloud, galloet, gallout = can, to be able, power, authority
galloudeg = powerful
galloudegader = power of attorney
galloudegezh = power, might, potency, strength
Breton (Brezhoneg) gallout = can, to be able
galloud = power

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gelH- (naked, head) [source]. Words in Celtic languages for revenge and related things come from the same roots.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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