Languages and Tongues

Words for languages and tongues in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *tangʷāss = tongue
Old Irish (Goídelc) tengae [ˈtʲeŋɡe] = tongue, language
Irish (Gaeilge) teanga [ˈtʲaŋə / ˈtʲaŋɡə] = tongue, language
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teanga [tʲɛŋgə] = tongue, speech, spit (of land)
Manx (Gaelg) çhengey [ˈtʃɛnʲə] = bell-clapper, clasp, feather, strap-hinge; catch (of buckle); tongue; language, speech; utterance
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tauaut = tongue
Welsh (Cymraeg) tafod [ˈtavɔd / ˈtaːvɔd] = tongue, faculty of speech, power of expression; language, speech, dialect, accent
Cornish (Kernewek) taves = tongue, language
Middle Breton teaut, teut = tongue
Breton (Brezhoneg) teod [ˈtɛwt] = tongue

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s (tongue) [source].

Proto-Celtic *yaxtī = language
Irish (Gaeilge) icht = tribe, people
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aiteam [ahdʲəm] = folk(s), people, tribe
Manx (Gaelg) eggys = tribe
Proto-Brythonic *jeiθ = tongue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ieith = tongue
Welsh (Cymraeg) iaith [jai̯θ] = language, tongue; people, nation, race, tribe
Cornish (Kernewek) yeth [eːθ / jeːθ] = tongue, language
Breton (Brezhoneg) yezh [ˈjeːs] = language

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *yek- (to utter) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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