Words for heads, brains and minds in Celtic languages.
|Proto-Celtic||*kʷennom = head
*en-kʷennio- = brain
|Gaulish||pennon / πεννοου = head|
|Primitive Irish||ᚉᚒᚅᚐ-ᚉᚓᚅᚅᚔ (cuna-cenni) = head|
|Old Irish (Goídelc)||cenn [kʲen͈] = head, end
inchinn [kʲen͈] = brain
|Irish (Gaeilge)||ceann [caun̪ˠ / cɑːn̪ˠ / can̪ˠ] = head; end, extremity; one; chief, main
inchinn [ˈɪɲçən̠ʲ] = brain
|Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)||ceann [kʲaun̪ˠ] = head; end, close, finish; lid; roof; subject, topic
eachainn [ɛnɛxɪn̪ʲ] = brain, brains
|Manx (Gaelg)||kione [caun / coːn / coᵈn] = head, headland, chief, ringleader, bottom, poll, end, extreme, close, finish, top-end, top, point of argument, termination, closing, extremity, point, dyke, tribune|
|Proto-Brythonic||*penn [ˈpenː] = head|
|Middle Welsh (Kymraec)||penn = head, chief|
|Welsh (Cymraeg)||pen [əˈmɛnɨ̞ð / əˈmɛnɪð] = head, obverse (of coin); top, summit, roof, highest point; extremity, end, beginning; headland, promontory, projecting point of rock; pole
ymennydd brain, brains, intellectual capacity, mind
|Old Cornish||penn = head|
|Cornish (Kernewek)||penn [pɛn:] = head, end, top
|Old Breton||penn = head, chief|
|Breton (Brezhoneg)||pen(n) [pɛ̃n] = head, chief, leader
empenn = brain
Etymology: unknown, possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kap- (to hold, seize). The words for brain all mean “in head”.
|Old Irish (Goídelc)||in(n)tinn [ˈin͈ʲtʲin͈ʲ] = head, end|
|Irish (Gaeilge)||intinn [ˈiːn̠ʲtʲən̠ʲ] = mind, mental state, disposition, attention, spirits, intention, accord|
|Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig)||inntinn [ĩːn̪ʲdʲɪn̪ʲ] = (human) mind; intellect, intelligence; intention, purpose|
|Manx (Gaelg)||inçhyn = brain, grey matter, intellect, spirit|
Etymology: from the Latin intentiō (strain, tension, increase, exertion, charge, purpose, intention).
Words marked with a * are reconstructions.