Legs & Feet

Words for legs and feet in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *koxsā = foot, leg
Old Irish (Goídelc) cos(s) [kos] = foot, leg
Irish (Gaeilge) cos [kɔsˠ] = leg, foot; handle, shaft, stem; lower end
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cas [kas] = foot, trotter; leg; handle, shaft shank (of a fishing hook
cos [kɔs] = foot, leg, handle, shaft
Manx (Gaelg) cass [kaːs] = leg, barrel, foot, shaft, peg, bottom, outlet, mouth of river, stalk, hilt, stem of pipe, crop of whip
Proto-Brythonic *koɨs = leg, shank, stem
Welsh (Cymraeg) coes [koːɨ̯s / kɔi̯s / koːs] = leg, shank; handle, haft, stem (of pipe); stalk, stem

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *koḱs- (joint) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru

Proto-Celtic *tregess = foot
Gaulish treide = foot
Old Irish (Goídelc) traig [traɣʲ] = foot (part of body / measurement), step
Irish (Gaeilge) troigh [t̪ˠɾˠɪɟ / t̪ˠɾˠɔ / t̪ˠɾˠiː] = foot (part of body / measurement), step
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) troigh [trɔç] = foot (part of body / measurement), sole of foot
Manx (Gaelg) trie [strɛin] = sole, twelve inches, foot
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) troet = foot
Welsh (Cymraeg) troed [troːɨ̯d / trɔi̯d] = foot; shaft, handle; bottom, base, pedestal, foundation, extremity, end; stalk; foot-joint
Old Cornish truit = foot
Middle Cornish troys / tros = foot
Cornish (Kernewek) troos [tro:z / tru:z] = foot, on foot
Old Breton troat = foot
Middle Breton troat = foot
Breton (Brezhoneg) troad = foot, handle

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tregʰ- (to run, walk), apparently a variant of *dʰregʰ- (to run) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

2 thoughts on “Legs & Feet

  1. re: *koxsā = foot, leg
    The etymology, as currently displayed, reads:
    “From Proto-Indo-European *koḱs- (joint), which is also the root of the English words buldge, budge and budget”
    I think a gremlin or two must have crept in here
    1) because there is AFAIK no word “buldge” in English, and
    2) I would be amazed if “budge” and “budget” have any connection to *koxsā!

  2. Gremlins have indeed been at work. All traces have now been removed.

    *koḱs- is in fact the root of the Latin coxa (hip, hipbone, thigh), the French cuisse (thigh), and related words in other Romance languages [source].

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