Fresh & New

Words for fresh and new in Celtic languages.

Words for new in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *ɸūros = new
Old Irish (Goídelc) úr = fresh, new
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úr = fresh, new, bright, noble, generous, fair, active, recent
Irish (Gaeilge) úr [uːɾˠ] = fresh; free, liberal, moist
úrach = green timber
úraigh = to freshen, scour, cleanse, become moist, damp
úras = new milk
úrchneasach = fresh-complexioned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ùr [uːr] = new, fresh
ùrachadh = refreshing, renewing, renovating, renewal
ùr-ghnàthaich = innovative, innovatory
ùr-ghnàthaichear = innovator
ùrad = degree of newness, novelty
Manx (Gaelg) oor = new, sweet, novel, sappy, crisp, span, fresh, hour, raw
ooragh = hourly, refreshing
ooraghey = to freshen, purify, refresh, relieve, sweeten
ooraghtoil, oorey = refreshing
Welsh (Cymraeg) ir [iːr] = verdant, green, juicy, sappy, moist, succulent, not withered, not dried up or coagulated, fresh, undried; mild; alive, thriving, lively, vigorous; new, fresh, young, unripe
iraidd = fresh, verdant, green, juicy, sappy, moist, liquid
Cornish (Kernewek) yr [ɪ:r/iːr] = fresh

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *puHrós (wheat), possibly from *pewH- (to be clean, pure) [Source].

Words from the same PIE roots include pure in English, პური (ṗuri – bread, wheat) in Georgian, and պուրի (puri – a type of bread) in Armenian [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nouyos = new
Gaulish *novios = (used in place names)
Celtiberian nouiza = new
Old Irish (Goídelc) núa [n͈uːa̯] = new
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) núa(e) = new, recent, fresh, lusty, vigorous, fair, clear, bright, lately, anew, again, recently
Irish (Gaeilge) nua [n̪ˠuə / n̪ˠuː] = new, fresh, recent, novel; newness, new thing
nua-aimseartha = modern
nuachan = novation
nuacht = news, novelty
nuachtóir = reporter, journalist
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nuadh [nuəɣ] = new, fresh, recent, novel, modern, unfamiliar
a-nuadh = anew
nua-aimsireach = modern, up to date
nua-fhasanta = newfangled
nuadhachadh = renewing, renovating
nuadhachas = novelty, innovation
Manx (Gaelg) noa = fresh, modern, new, novel, original, recent, unused
noa-emshiragh = modern
noaght = freshness, modernity, newness, novelty
noaid = freshness, innovation, newness, novelty, originality
aanoaghey = to rejuvenate, renew, renovate
Proto-Brythonic *newɨð = new
Old Welsh neguid = new
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) newyt, newyd = new, recent, modern, late, novel
newydhau, newyddhau = to renew, renovate, restore
Welsh (Cymraeg) newydd [ˈnɛu̯.ɨ̞ð/ˈnɛu̯.ɪð] = new, recent, newly-grown, modern, late, novel, changed, different; new (moon), unused, fresh
newyddaf, newyddu = to renew, renovate, restore, be renewed or restored, replace, change, reform, modernize, innovate
newyddaidd = newish, new, modern, newfangled, fresh, renewed
newyddair = neologism, new word or spelling
newyddeb = novelty, innovation
newyddiadur = newspaper
newyddiadura = to be a journalist
newyddiadureg = jouralese, journalism
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) newydh, nowydh, nowedh = new, fresh, late, recent
Cornish nowydh = fresh, new, novel, newly, just
nowydh flamm = brand new
nowydh genys = newborn
Old Breton nouuid = new
Breton (Brezhoneg) nevez [ˈ] = new
nevezadeg restoration campaign
nevezadenn = innovation
nevezadenniñ = to innovate
nevezadur = innovation, updating, actualisation
nevezer = innovator

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *néw(y)os (new) [Source]. The town of Noia in A Coruña in Galicia in the northwest of Spain probably gets its new from the same Proto-Celtic root possibly via Celtiberian [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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