Words for young in Celtic languages.


Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *yowankos = young
Gaulish Iouinca = name (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) óc [oːɡ] = young, young man, warrior
ócbad = young people, youths
óclach = young man, warrior, servant
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) óc = young, young man, warrior, poet
ócbad, ócbud = young folk, youths, youth
óclach, ócleach = young man, warrior, attendant, servant, vassal
Irish (Gaeilge) óg [oːɡ/ɔːɡ] = young (person, animal, bird), youth, junior, minor, new, fresh, early
ógánach = young man, youth, crafty person, boyo, trickster
óigeanta = youthful, youthful-looking
óigeantacht = youthfulness
óglach = young man, (young) warrior), attendant, servant, vassal, volunteer
óglachas = manhood, warriorship, armed service, vassalage
ógra = young people, youths
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òg [ɔːg] = young, youthful
ògail [ɔːgal] = adolescent, youthful
ògalachd [ɔːgəl̪ˠəxg] = youthfulness, youth, youthful conduct
ògan [ɔːgan] = tendril, twig, seedling, lambkin
òganach [ɔːganəx] = youth, young man, bough
òganta [ɔːgən̪ˠdə] = juvenile
Manx (Gaelg) aeg [ɛːɡ] = young, adolescent, immature, juvenile
aegey = young, juvenile
aegid = adolescence, immaturity, young people, youth
aeglagh = adolescent, juvenile, young ones, youth
aegoil = youngish, youthful
Proto-Brythonic *jowank = young
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ieuangc, yeueing, yeuejg, yefeink, ieuanc, ieueinc = young, juvenille, unmarried
ieu, iau = younger
yeuhaf, yeuaw, ieuhaf, ieuaf = (the) youngest
euectyt, euenctit, ieuegtit, ieuengtit = youth, adolescence
Welsh (Cymraeg) ifanc [ˈɪvaŋk / ˈiːvaŋk] = young, youthful, adolescent; inexperienced, immature; recent; unmarried, newly wed
iau, ieuach, ifach = younger, not as old
ieuaf, i(e)faf = (the) youngest, the younger (of two), junior
ieuant = young person, youth, adolescence
ieuenctid = youth, adolescence
Old Cornish iouenc, youonc = young
Middle Cornish yowync, iouenc, youonc = young, youthful
yonc = young, youthful, juvenile
yowyncneth = youth, youthfulness
Cornish (Kernewek) yowynk, yonk [‘jɔwɪŋk/jɔˑŋk] = juvenille, young, youthful
yowynka, yonka = younger
yonker, yonkores = youngster, youth
yowynkneth, yonkneth = youth
Middle Breton youanc, ioanc, iouanc = young
yaouancquat, youancat, youanchat = to rejuvenate
yaouanctet, iaouanctet = youth(fulness)
Breton (Brezhoneg) yaouank = young
yaouankaat = to rejunvenate
yaouankadur = rejunvenation
yaouank(t)iz = youth
yaouankted = youth(fulness)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂yuh₁n̥ḱós (young), from *h₂yéwHō (young), from *h₂óyu (long time, lifetime) [source].

Words from the same roots include young and youth in English, jeudg (youth) in Dutch, Jugend (youth) in German, jeune (young) in French and joven (young(ster), youth(ful), young person) in Spanish [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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