Words for pig and related beasts in Celtic languages:


Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mokkus = pig
*mokk(w)yatis = swineherd
Old Irish (Goídelc) mucc [muk] = pig, sow; a war engine: a shed to cover sappers
muccaid [ˈmukiðʲ] = swineherd
muccaidecht [ˈmukiðʲext] = herding swine
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) muc, mucc = pig, sow
muc(c)ach = pertaining to swine
muc(c)aid = swineherd
muc(c)aidecht = herding swine
muc(c)álach = a brood or litter of pigs
muc(c)lach = piggery
Irish (Gaeilge) muc [mˠʊk] = pig; heap, bank, drift; scowl; sow
mucachán = (of person) pig, swine
mucaire = slovenly worker
mucaireacht = slovenly work
mucais = pit sty; dirty, slovely person; hogback
muicí = swineherd
muicíocht = swine-herding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muc [muxɡ] = pig, sow
mucag [muxgag] = little pig, piggy, (rose)hip
mucaidh = swineherd
mucaireachd = swineherding, herding pigs
muicfheoil [muçgʲɔl] = pork
muc-mhara [muxgˈvarə] = whale
muc-stigean = porpoise
Manx (Gaelg) muc = hog, swine, pig, grunter
muclagh = piggery, pigsty, sty
muick = swine
bochilley muickey = swineherd
muc hallooin = aardvark
muc varrey = whale, porpoise
Proto-Brythonic *mox = pig
*möxjad = swineherd
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) moch = pigs, swine
mochduy = pigsty
mochawg = piggish, swinish
meichiat, meicheit, meichad = swineherd
Welsh (Cymraeg) moch [moːχ] = pigs, swine, hogs; greedy, dirty, lazy, drunk, or immoral persons; small pumps used underground in coal-mines to remove water
mochyn [ˈmɔχɨ̞n / ˈmoːχɪn] = pig, swine, hog
mocha, mochi, mochian = to behave like a pig, wallow, grunt, defile, sully
mochach = contemptible or swinish people
mochaidd = swinish, filthy, dirty, vile, immoral, greedy
mochdra = filthiness, dirtines
mochdy = pigsty
mochgig = pork, ham, bacon
mochog = piggish, swinish
mochwr = swineherd, pig-dealer, untidy workman
meich(i)ad = swineherd
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) moch, môch = pigs
mochyn = pig
Cornish (Kernewek) mogh [mɔːx / moːʰ] = pigs, swine
Old Breton moch = pigs, swine
mochiat = swineherd
Middle Breton (Brezonec) moch = pigs, swine
Breton (Brezhoneg) moc’h [moːχ] = pigs, swine
moc’haer = swineherd

Etymology: borrowed from a non-Indo-European substrate language. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include mocke (a slovenly woman) in Middle Dutch and moche (sow, female pig) in Middle High German [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cullach [ˈkul͈ax] = boar, stallion
muccullach = boar
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cullach, colach = boar, stallion
Irish (Gaeilge) collach [kəˈl̪ˠɑx / ˈkɔl̪ˠəx / ˈkʌl̪ˠax] = boar (male pig); male crab; crude, fleshy, person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cullach = mature male (unneutered) animal (such as boars, hogs, etc)
Manx (Gaelg) collagh = boar, male, stallion
collagh muc = boar (domestic)
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceilliog = having testicles, uncastrated, entire, male
Middle Breton (Brezonec) callouch, qalloc’h, calloc’h = entire, standard, stallion
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalloc’h = entire

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *kalljo- (testicle).

Proto-Celtic *t(w)orkos = boar (pig)
Old Irish (Goídelc) torc [tork] = (wild) boar, chieften, hero
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) torc = (wild) boar, chieftan, hero
Irish (Gaeilge) torc [t̪ˠɔɾˠk / t̪ˠʌɾˠk] = (wild) boar, hog; portly, corpulent person, man of substance
torcán = little, young boar; small corpulent person
torc allta = wild boar
torc-chú = boar hound
torcshleá = boar-spear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) torc = [tɔr̪ˠxg] = boar, hog
torc-nimhe, torc-fiadhaich = wild boar
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tỽrch, twrch, tyrch = hog, (wild) boar, mole
Welsh (Cymraeg) twrch [tʊrχ] = hog, (wild) boar, mole
twrch (y) coed = woodlouse
twrch daear = mole, badger
tyrchu, tyrchio = to burrow, dig (up), root up, nuzzle, rummage; to catch (moles)
tyrchaidd = hoglike, hoggish, swinish, greedy
tyrchwr, trychydd = mole-catcher, bulldozer
Old Cornish torch = hog
Middle Cornish (Cernewc) torch = hog
Cornish (Kernewek) torgh = hog, boar
Old Breton torch = boar
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tourch = boar, ram; a debauched man
Breton (Brezhoneg) tourc’h = boar, macho, debauched

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *twerḱ- (to cut) [source]. English words from the same PIE root include trunk, truculent and sarcasm [source].

Proto-Celtic *sukkos = pig
Old Irish (Goídelc) socc = pig, sow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) suic, socc, soc = snout, ploughshare
Irish (Gaeilge) soc [sˠɔk] = sow
socach = nozzled, snouted, beaked, pointed
socadán = person with pointed face, nosy person, interloper, busybody
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) soc [sɔxg] = beak, snout, sockt, ploughshare, short, chubby person
socach [sɔxgəx] = snouted, beaked
Manx (Gaelg) sock = bow, nose, snout, tow; ploughshare, nozzle
Proto-Brythonic *hux = pig
*sux = ploughshare
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwch [huːχ] = sow, pig, swine, dirty creature
Old Cornish hoch = pig, hog
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hoch = pig, hog
hochwayu = hog-spear
Cornish (Kernewek) hogh = hog, pig, swine
hogh Gyni = Guinea pig
hoghwuwa = to pigstick
hoghwuwans = pig sticking
Old Breton hoch = sow
Middle Breton (Brezonec) houch, houc’h, hoh = sow
oc’hal, hoc’ha, hoc’he = to grunt, oink
oc’hellât, houc’hellat = to burrow, dig
hoch-goez, houch guez = wild boar
oh mor, hoc’h-mor = porpoise
houc’h-tourc’h = boar
Breton (Brezhoneg) houc’h = pig (male, often neutered)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European suH- (pig, hog, swine). The English word hog was possibly borrowed into Old English from Welsh. Other words from the same Proto-Celtic root include socket in English, and soc (ploughshare) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸorkos = piglet
Gaulish *orkos = pork, piglet
Old Irish (Goídelc) orc [ork] = piglet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) orc = young pig
Irish (Gaeilge) arc(án) = piglet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) orc [ɔr̪ˠxg] = young animal, offspring (esp. piglet or sheep); whale (archaic)
orcan [ɔr̪ˠxgan] = piglet, young pig
Manx (Gaelg) ark = young pig, piglet, sucking pig
Pictish orc = piglet, young pig

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European pórḱos (piglet), which is also the root of the English word farrow (a litter of piglets), and the German word Ferkel (piglet) [source].

The name Orkney comes from the Old Norse Orkneyjar (seal islands), from orkn (seal) and ey (island). It is thought that Norwegian settlers reinterpreted the original Pictish tribal name element orc (piglet) [source].

Proto-Celtic *banwos = pig
Gaulish Banuus, Banuo = pig
Old Irish (Goídelc) banb [ban͈v] = piglet, young pig
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) banb, bainb = young pig
Irish (Gaeilge) banbh [ˈbˠanˠəvˠ] = piglet; Ace of Hearts
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) banb, bainb = young pig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) banbh [banav] = young pig, piglet
banbhan [banavan] = small piglet
banbhradh [banavrəɣ] = herd of piglets
Manx (Gaelg) bannoo = sucking pig, piglet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banv = (young) pig, piglet
Welsh (Cymraeg) banw = (young) pig, piglet, weaned pig, hog; young animal
Old Cornish baneu = sow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) banb = sow
Cornish (Kernewek) banow = sow
Middle Breton (Brezonec) banv = sow, pig
Breton (Brezhoneg) banv = mother sow

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a non-Indo-European language [source].

Proto-Brythonic *porxell = piglet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) porchell, parchell = (young) pig, piglet
Welsh (Cymraeg) porchell [ˈpɔrχɛɬ] = sucking-pig, piglet, little pig, porker, pig, swine, hog
Old Cornish porchel = young pig, piglet
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) porhel = young pig, piglet
Cornish (Kernewek) porghel = young pig, piglet
porghellik = piglet, sucking pig
Old Breton porchill = piglet
Middle Breton (Brezonec) porhell, porchell, porchel = piglet
porchelles = sow
Breton (Brezhoneg) porc’helleg = piglet

Etymology: from the Late Latin porcellus (piglet), from the Latin porcus (pig), from the Proto-Italic *porkos (pig) from the Proto-Indo-European pórḱos (piglet) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include varken (pig) in Dutch, pork in English, and porc (pig, pork) in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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