Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Take Note!

Words for note, mark and related things in Celtic languages.

note, mark, sign

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) not = contraction, mark, sign
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) not, nod = mark, sign, sign of contraction in writing, note, bear in mind
nodmar = significant
Irish (Gaeilge) nod [n̪ˠɔd̪ˠ/n̪ˠʌd̪ˠ] = scribal contraction, abbreviation, hint
nodaire = professional scribe
nodaireacht = notation, profession of scribe
nóta = (musical) note, brief record, annotation, short letter
nótáil = to note (down)
nótáilte = notable
nótaire = notary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nòd(h) = note
nòta = (written) note
nòtachadh = annotation
nòtaire = notary
dubh-not = crotchet, quarter note
geal-not = minim, half note
cruinn-not = semibreve, whole note
bun-nòta = footnote
nòta-deiridh = endnote
Manx (Gaelg) notey = note
noatey = banknote
Proto-Brythonic *nod = mark, brand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nod, not, nôd = target, goal, aim, etc
nottwy, nodi, notto = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
Welsh (Cymraeg) nod [noːd] = target, goal, aim, fame, renown, notoriety, mark sign, symbol, note, banknote, verse (in Bible)
nodach = short notes, jottings, odds and ends, trifles
nodadwy = noteworthy, notable, remarkable
nod(i)af, nodi(o) = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nod(i)edig = noted, marked, appointed, set, specified
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
nodyn [ˈnɔdɨ̞n/ˈnoːdɪn] = target, aim, mark, token, note
atalnod = punctuation mark, comma
collnod = apostrophe ’
cysylltnod = hyphen –
dyfynnod = ‘quotation mark’
ebychnod = exclamation mark!, sign of aspiration (h)
hirnod = cîrcûmflêx
hynod = remarkable, notable
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nôd, nos = mark, token
notye = to note, observe, denote
Cornish (Kernewek) nos = mark, token
nos devyn = quotation mark
nos -junya = hyphen
nosedhek = notable
nosya = to notate
nosyans = notation
noten = note
notenna = to notate (music)
notennans = notation
notennyans = annotation
noter, notores = notary, solicitor
notya = to note
notyans = memo
notyes, notys = notable
Old Breton not = note
Middle Breton (Brezonec) not = note, mention
notabl, notapl = notable
notadur = notation, (religious) censure
Breton (Brezhoneg) notenn = note
not = note
notañ, notiñ = to note
notapl = notable
notadur = notation

Etymology: from Latin nota (mark, sign, note), which is of unknown origin. Words from the same Latin root include note in English, note (note, mark, grade, bill) in French, Note (note, grade, mark) in German, and nota (note, memo, mark) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boats and Ships

Words for boat, ship and related vessels in Celtic languages.

Douglas / Doolish

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *longā- = boat, vessel
Old Irish (Goídelc) long [l͈oŋɡ] = boat, ship
longfort = camp, encampment, stronghold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) long, longa = boat, ship, vessel, long-ship, galley; vessel, container; house; bed
longphort, lonngport = camp, encampment, temporary stronghold, mansion, princely dwelling; stronghold, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) long [l̪ˠɔŋ] = ship, vessel, container, house
longbhá = shipwreck
longbhac = embargo (on ships), naval blockade
longbhoth = (navel) dock
longbhriste = shipwrecked
longcheárta, longchlós = shipyard
longfort = camp, stronghold, fortified residence
longlann = dockyard
longmhar = abounding in ships
longtheach = boat-house
longthógáil = shipbuilding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) long [l̪ˠɔuŋg] = ship
longas = shipping, shipment
longart = seaport
long-adhair = airship
long-bhriste = shipwreck
long-chasgadh = embargo
long-fhada = galley (ship)
long-fhànais = spaceship
long-lann = dockyard
long-phort = seaport
long-thogail = shipbuilding
Manx (Gaelg) lhong [loŋ] = ship, vessel
lhong aer = airship
lhong-chaardee = boatyard, shipyard
lhong chrowal = hovercraft
lhong liauyr = longship
lhong-phurt = basin, seaport
lhong spoar = spaceship
lhong spooillee = pirate ship
lhuingys = fleet, shipping
Proto-Brythonic *llong = ship, vessel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) loggou, log, llogeu, llong = ship, boat
llongi = to embark, ship
llongeidiev, llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llog porth, llogborth, llong-borth = seaport, haven, harbour
long-dorr = shipwreck
longhawl, llonghavl. llongawl = nautical, maritime, naval
llongỼyr, llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
Welsh (Cymraeg) llong [ɬɔŋ] = ship, boat; the Great Bear (Ursa Major)
llongaf, llongi = to embark, ship
llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llongborth = seaport, harbour, dock, quay
llongdor = shipwreck
llongol = nautical, maritime, naval
llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
llong awyr = airship, aeroplane
llong y diffeithwch, llong dir = ship of the desert, camel
llong ofod = spaceship, spacecraft
llong hofran = hovercraft
llong danfor(ol) = submarine
Old Breton locou = ship, boat

Etymology: possibly from the Latin (navis) longa ([long] boat), or from an unknown source [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nāwā- = boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) nau, nó = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) nó, noe = boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars)
Irish (Gaeilge) nae [n̪ˠeː] = boat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noe = large vase, bowl
Welsh (Cymraeg) noe = (wooden) vessel used in making butter, kneading dough, etc. shallow dish, bowl, pan, basin, laver, wooden trough
noeaid = dishful
Cornish (Kernewek) new = sink, trough, washbasin
new doos = trough
new-droghya = sheep dip
Middle Breton (Brezonec) néau, néff, neo, nev = trough, bucket
néay-doas, neo-doaz, nev-doaz = kneading-trough
Breton (Brezhoneg) nev = trough, bucket

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *néh₂us (boat), from *(s)neh₂- (to swim) [Source]. Words from the same roots include navy, navigate, andnautical in English [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelic) bát = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bát, bád = boat
Irish (Gaeilge) bád [bˠɑːd̪ˠ/bˠaːd̪ˠ] = boat
bádóireacht = (act of) boating
bád iascaigh = fishing boat
bád seoil = sailing boat
bád tarrthála = lifeboat
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàta [baːhdə] = boat, craft
bàtaireachd = boating
bàta-aigeil = submarine
bàta-asieig = ferry boat
bàta-falbhain = hovercraft
bàta-iasgaich = fishing boat
bàta-sàbhalaidh = lifeboat
bàta-siùil = sailing boat
Manx (Gaelg) baatey [ˈbɛːðə] = boat, even keel
baateyrys = boating
baatey assaig = ferry boat
baatey bieauid = speedboat
baatey eeastee = fishing boat
baatey etlagh = seaplane
baatey sauaillagh = lifeboat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bat, bad = boat
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
Welsh (Cymraeg) bad = boat, barge, (small) ship
badaid = boatful
badlong = ketch, pinnace
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
bad acbub = lifeboat
bad pysgota = fishing boat

Etymology: from Old English bāt (boat) or from Old Norse bátr (boat), both of which come from Proto-Germanic *baitaz (boat, ship), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to break, split) [Source].

The English word boat comes from the same roots, as do words for boat in many other languages [Source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scaf, scaffu, scafa = ship
Irish (Gaeilge) scafa [sˠkɑfˠə] = ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgoth [sgɔh] = skiff
sgothag = little skiff, small yacht, cutter
sgiof [sgʲif] = skiff (boat)
sgib [sgʲib] = small ship (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) skiff = skiff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgraff, yscraff, ysgraff = boat, barge, ferry
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgraff, sgraff = boat, barge, skiff, ferry, ship, raft
ysgraffbont = pontoon
ysgraffwr, ysgraffydd = ferryman, boatman, bargee
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scath = boat
scath hîr = long boat
Cornish (Kernewek) skath = boat
skathik = dinghy
skath hir = barge
skath kloos = raft
skath tan = motor-boat
skath sawya = lifeboat
skath-wolya = sailing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scaph, scaff, sqaff, skaf = skiff
skavat, skafad = contents of a skiff
Breton (Brezhoneg) skaf = skiff, landing net

Etymology: possibly from Latin scapha (a light boat, skiff), from Ancient Greek σκάφη (skáphē – light boat, skiff), from σκᾰ́πτω (skáptō – to dig, delve); or from Old Norse skúta (small craft, cutter) [Source].

Proto-Celtic *lestrom = vessel, pot
Old Irish (Goídelic) lestar = vessel, container, beehive
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lestar = vessel, container, beehive, ship, boat
lestarach = frequented by ships
Irish (Gaeilge) leastar [ˈl̠ʲasˠt̪ˠəɾˠ] = vessel, container (for liquids), cask, firkin, (wash) tub, punt (boat), tub; squat, dumpy person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leastar = small boat, cup, vessel, furniture of a house
Proto-Brythonic *llestr = vessel, container
Old Welsh lestir = vessel, container
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llestri, llestyr = vessel, container
llestreit, llestraid, llestred = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestryn, llestrun = small vessel, small barrel, boat
Welsh (Cymraeg) llestr [ɬɛstr/ˈɬɛstɛr] = vessel, bushel, ship, boat, beehive, womb, uterus
llestraid = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestrwr = maker of vessels, potter
llestryn = small vessel, small barrel, boat, human body
Old Cornish lester = vessel, container
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lester = vessel, ship
golowlester = a light-vessel, a lamp
Cornish (Kernewek) lester = dish, ship, utensil vessel
lester eth = steam boat
lester-bargesi = hovercraft
lester=gwari = yacht
lester-sedhi = submarine
annedh lester = houseboat
lestrier = (kitchen) dresser
lestriva = dockyard
lestryn = container
Old Breton lestr = ship, vessel, container
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lestr = ship, vessel, container
lestr-dre-dan = steamship
lestr-kroazer, lestr-reder = cruiser
Breton (Brezhoneg) lestr [ˈlɛstʁ] = vessel, container, ship
lestr-spluj[lɛs.ˈplyːʃ] = submarine
aerlestr [ˈɛʁlestʁ] = aircraft
lestrañ [ˈlɛstrã] = to board, load (a vehicle)
dilestrañ [diˈlɛsːtrã] = to disemark

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ- (to fold, weave). The Goidelic words were possibly borrowed from Proto-Brythonic [Source].


Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwch, cŵch = boat, beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwch [kʊχ] = boat, beehive
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) coc = boat
Cornish (Kernewek) kok = fishing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) couc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
kouc’hañ = to cover (a beehive)

Etymology: possibly cognate with the English word cog (a clinker-built, flat-bottomed, square-rigged mediaeval ship of burden, or war with a round, bulky hull and a single mast; a small fishing boat), which comes from Middle Dutch cogghe (clinker-built, flat-bottomed sailing cargo ship of the Middle Ages), from Proto-Germanic *kuggō, from PIE *gugā (hump, ball) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse dictionary

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Fearful dread

Words for fear, dread and related words in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *oβnus/*obnu- = fear
*exsoβnos = fearless
Gaulish *exsoβnos = fearless
Old Irish (Goídelc) omun [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, dread, afraid
airomun = great fear
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ómun, omun, ómain, óman, úama(i)n, úamun = fear, afraid, apprehensive, fearful, terrible
omnach = afraid, easily frightened, timid, fearful, fear-inspiring
esamain, essamain = fearless, bold, daring
Irish (Gaeilge) uamhan = fear, awe, dread, terror
uamhnach = dreadful, terrifying, fearful, timorous
uamhnacht = dreadfulness, terror, fearfulness, timorousness
uamhnaigh = to frighten, terrify, become afraid, fear, dread
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhann [uəvən̪ˠ] = dread, terror, horror
uabhannach [uəvən̪ˠəx] = terrible, horrible, astounding, shocking
Manx (Gaelg) owan = dread, fright
owanagh = fearful, frightening, frightful
Proto-Brythonic *oβn [oβn] = fear
*exoβn [ɛxˈoβn] = fearless, bold
*exoβneð = fearlessness, boldness, confidence
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ovn, ofuyn, ofyn, ofn = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful
ovynna, ofni, ofnaf = to fear
ofnedic, ofnedig, ovanedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ovnawc, ofnauc, ofynawc = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
ehon, ehovyn, ehofyn = fearless
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofn [ɔvn/ˈoːvɔn] = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnad = (a state/cause of) fear or anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful, dreadul, formidable, awesome
ofnaf, ofni = to fear, be afraid, hold in awem respect, revere; to frighton, terrify, scare
ofnedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ofnog = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
eofn = fearless, dauntless, brave, courageous
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) own = fear, dread
owna = to fear, dread, be afraid
ownec, ownek = a timid person, a fearful fellow, a coward
Cornish (Kernewek) own = alarm, fear, fright, scare
ownek = afraid, alarmed, cowardly, fearful, scared, terrified,
ownek, owenoges = coward
ownekhe = to intimidate
ownekheans = intimidation
ownus = apprehensive
Middle Breton (Brezonec) aoun, oun, eunë = fear
aounic, aounich, aonic = timid
aounus, eunus = fearful
Breton (Brezhoneg) aon [ɔ̃n] = fear
aonik = timid
aonikaat = to make or become timid
aoniñ = frightened, scared
aonus = fearful
dizaon = fearless
dizaoniñ = to stave off fear
rouzaon =fright

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- (to constrict, tighten). [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸowtus, *awtos, *owtos = horror, fear
Old Irish (Goídelc) úath [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, horror, terror
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úath, uath = fear, horror, terror, spectre, phantom, terrible, horrible
úathach, uathach, uathbas = horrible, dreadful
úathmar, uathmar = dreadful, terrifying, horrible, awful
airúath, erúath = dreadfulness, terribleness. terror, dread
fúath, fuath = hatred, abhorrence
fúathmar, fuathmhar = hateful, odious
Irish (Gaeilge) uath [uə(h)] = horrible thing, horror (literary)
uafás = horror, terror, astonishment, vast number or amount
uafásach = horrible, terrible, vast, astonishing
fuath [fˠuə/fˠɪə] = hate, hatred
fuafar = hateful, hideous, odious
fuathaigh = to hate, abandon through dislike
fuathaitheoir = hater
fuathú = to hate, abhorrence, dislike, distaste
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhas [uəh] = dread, terror
uabhasach [uəvəsəx] = horrible, terrible, awful, dire, dreadful, destructive; very, terribly
uabhasaich [uəvəsɪç] = horrity, appal
uabhasachd [uəvəsəxg] = terribleness, awfulness, dreadfulness, horribleness, abominableness
fuath [fuə] = hatred, aversion, antipathy, spectre, the fairies
fuathach [fuəhəx] = abhorrent, detestable, loathsome
fuathasach = dreadful, horrible, wonderful
Manx (Gaelg) feoh = abhorrence, antipathy, aversion, disgust, hatred, loathing, phobia
feohdagh = abhorrent, abominable, execrable, filthy, hateful, nauseous
feohdoil = abhorrent, disgusting, hateful, horrible, horrid, invidious, loathsome
Proto-Brythonic *ʉθ, *ọθ = horror
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) vthir, uthyr, vthyr = fearful, dreadful, awful, terrible
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze
uthraidd, vthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing
uthred, uthret = horror
vthrawg = fearful, dreadful
uthrol, vthrawl, uthrawl = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Welsh (Cymraeg) uthr = fearful, terrible, tremendous, mighty, overbearing, cruel, wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze, be astonished, terrify
uthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent, frightful, dreadful
uthrog = fearful, dreadful
uthrol = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) euth = fright, horror
uth = horror, fright, terror, awfulness
uthec, uthyc = horible, frightful, terrible, awful
uthecter, utheker = horror, frightfulness
Cornish (Kernewek) euth = horror, panic, terror
euthega = to terrify
euthekter = terror
euthvil = monster
euthyk = abominable, awful, frightful, ghastly, horrible
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euz, eah, êuz, heuz = disgust, horror, aversion, fear
euzic, euzyc = horrible, hideous
Breton (Brezhoneg) euzh = fright
euzhadenn, euzhden = monster (person)
euzhvil = monster (animal)
euzhwrac’h = chimera

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pew-. Possibly related to *oβnus (fear) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ecla = dread, fear
ecal = cautious, fearful, timid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ecla [ˈeɡlə] = fear, dread
ecal, egal = fearful, timorous
eclach = fearful, causing or inspiring fear, dreaded
ainecla, airecla = great fear, terror
Irish (Gaeilge) eagla [ˈaɡəl̪ˠə/ˈaɡlˠə] = fear
eagal = fearful, timorous (person)
eagalach =fearful, afraid, apprehensive, timid
eagalaí = fearfulness
eagalaigh = to become afraid, be afraid of, fear, frighten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eagal [egəl̪ˠ] = fear, fright, timidity
eagalach [egəl̪ˠəx] = fearful, timid, frightful, timorous, frightening, alarming
eagalach feagalach = hairy scary
eagalta [egəl̪ˠdə] = fearful
eagalachd [egəl̪ˠəxg] = terribleness, dreadfulness
eagalan = little coward
Manx (Gaelg) aggle = fear
agglagh = fearful, afraid
agglee = to become afraid, be afraid, fear, appall

Etymology: from Old Irish ess- (ex-, out, dis-), from Proto-Celtic *exs (out), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs (out); and Old Irish gal (ardour, fury, valour), from Proto-Celtic *galā (might, ability), from *galnati (to be able), from Proto-Indo-European *gelH- (to be able, can) [source].

Words meaning to be able to in Brythonic languages, such as gallu in Welsh, come from the same roots [more details], as does the Irish word gal (ardour, valour, fury, vapour, steam) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ceilidh Companions

Words for companion, ceilidh and related things in Celtic languages.

Cèilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
Ceilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig in the Isle of Skye / Cèilidh aig Sabhal Mòr Ostaig san Eilean Sgitheanach

Proto-Celtic *kēlyos = companion, servant
Primitive Irish ᚉᚓᚂᚔ (celi) = follower, devotee (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) céile [ˈkʲeːlʲe] = client, companion, husband, liege, servant, spouse, subject, vassal
céilide [ˈkʲeːlʲiðʲe] = visit, visiting
coicéile = companion, comrade, friend, friendship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) céile, ceile, céli = servant, bondsman, vassal, subject, fellow, companion, husband
céileachas = adultery
céilide = visit, act of visiting
coicéile, cocéle, coceli = vassal, bondsman, companion, fellow, friend
coicéilsine, cocéilsine, cocélsine = fellowship, clientship
Irish (Gaeilge) céile [ˈceːlʲə] = companion, spouse
céileachas = companionship, cohabitation, copulation
céilí = friend call, visit, social evening, Irish dancing session
céilíoch = person fond of social visits, sociable person
céilíocht = sociableness, companionableness
céiliúil = companionable
coigéile = mate, companion
coigéilsine = fellowship, companionship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cèile [kʲeːlə] =fellow, partner, significant other, spouse, counterpart
cèile-còmhraige = opponent, antagonist
cèile-pòsta = married partner (husband or wife)
cèileach [kʲeːləx] = entertaining
cèileachadh [kʲeːləxəɣ]= participating/sharing in, twinning, partnering (of a city)
cèiliche [kʲeːlɪçə] = visitor
cèilidh [kʲeːlɪ] = ceilidh, visit, (act of) visiting
cèilidheach [kʲeːlɪjəx] = companionable, fond of company, sociable
Manx (Gaelg) keilley = match
dy cheilley = joined, together
e cheilley = fellow
ry-cheilley =en masse, together, with each other
kaylee = ceilidh
Proto-Brythonic *kuɨlð = servant, companion
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cilit, cilid, kilid, kilyd = servant, companion
Welsh (Cymraeg) cilydd [ˈkɪlɨ̞ð/ˈkiːlɪð] = fellow, companion, neighbour, enemy, other
cilyddol = reciprocal, mutual
at ei gilydd = together
gyda’i gilydd = together
ei gilydd = each other
o bryd i’w gilydd = from time to time
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cele = companion, fellow, one of two
Cornish (Kernewek) kila = companion
Old Breton kiled = friend
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kile = the other (one), friend
Breton (Brezhoneg) kile = associate, stooge, colleague, sidekick

Etymology: possibly the Proto-Celtic word originally meant ‘wayfarer’, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to settle, to be lying down) [source].

The English word ceilidh [ˈkeɪli] (an informal social gathering where traditional Irish or Scottish folk music is played, with dancing and storytelling; a ceilidh dance; to dance a ceilidh) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic and/or from Irish [source]. Someone who attends a ceilidh is apparently a ceilidher [source].

The Welsh equivalent of a ceilidh is a twmpath, which also meanings hillock, knoll, mound, pile, gathering or assembly. It’s also a known as a twmpath dawns (folk-dance, barn dance, public dance) or noson lawen (“merry/joyful evening”). In Cornish a ceilidh is a troyll, which also means spiral or swirl, and in Breton they are known as fest-noz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Near and Close

Words for near, close and and and related things in Celtic languages.

A group of meerkats

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *onkus = at
*onkus-tus = near, close, and
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocus [ˈoɡus] = near, close, nearness, proximity, and
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocus, acus = and, near, nearness, proximity
com(ḟ)ocus, comacus = near, proximate, neighbouring; equidistant, proximity; relationship
focus = near, close
bean fagas, bean ḟogas = kinswoman
Irish (Gaeilge) agus (⁊) [ˈɑɡəsˠ/ˈaɡəsˠ] = and, while, although, as
agusóir = halting, inarticulate, speaker
aguisín = addition, addendum
fogas [ˈfˠʌɡəsˠ] = nearness, closeness, near, close
fogasghaol = near relationship, near relative
foisceacht = nearness, proximity
bráthair fogas = near kinsman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) agus (⁊) [agəs] = and, plus, as, while, although
agusan = Tironian/Gaelic ampersand (⁊)
fagas [fagəs] = close, near
fagasg [fagəsg] = proximity, nearness
fagasachd [fagəsəxg] = adjacency, nearness, proximity
fagasach [fagəsəx] = adjacent
faisg [faʃgʲ] = close, near
faisgead [faʃgʲəd] = degree of nearness/proximity
Manx (Gaelg) as = and, as
faggys = almost, close, contiguous, handy, near, nearby, neighbouring
faggys-yalloo = closeup
faggysaght = adjacency, nearness
Old Welsh ha, hac, hay, ac = and
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) a(c)= and
agos = near, close
agoseieit = close relations or friends
Welsh (Cymraeg) a(c) [a(k), a(ɡ)] = and
agos [ˈaɡɔs / ˈa(ː)ɡɔs] = near, close, almost, nearly, on the verge of, about to
agosâd = a drawing near, approach
agosaf, agosi = to draw near, approach
agosaol = approaching
agoseiaid = close relations or friends
agosiad = close relation or friend
agosrwydd = closeness, nearness, proximity
agoster = closeness, nearness, proximity
Old Cornish ha = and
ogos = near, close
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) ha(g), a = and
ogas, oges, ogos, agos = near, neighbouring
Cornish (Kernewek) ha(g) [ha(ɡ)] = and, plus, while
hag erel (h.e.) = etc.
hag oll = moreover
ogas = adjoinging, close, near, almost, nearly, vicinity
ogas ha = approximately
ogas lowr = approximate
yn ogas, en ogas = closely, nearby
ogasti, ogatti = almost, nearly
Old Breton a, ha, hac = and
ocos = near, close
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ha, hag, ham, haz = and
hag all, ha a, hag e-se = etc.
hogos, hegos, ogos, egos = almost, barely, close, near
hogoster, hogosder = proximity
hogozik, hogosicq, hogosic = almost, close, near
Breton (Brezhoneg) ha(g) = and
hag all (h.a.) = etc.
hogos = near, close, almost
hogosder = proximity

Etymology: not known [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language,, Am Faclair Beag, Fockleyreen: Manx – English Dictionary, Online Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, Gerlyver Kernewek, Devri : Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

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Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Words for wheel and related words in Celtic languages.

Laxey Wheel

Proto-Celtic *rotos = wheel, chariot
Gaulish *Rotomagos = placename [see below]
Old Irish (Goídelc) roth = disc, sphere, wheel
rothmol = gyration
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) roth, routh = wheel, something circular or wheel-shaped, disc, sphere, circular brooch, wheel brooch, loop, noose
roithled = the act of rotating or twirling
roithlén = wheel
roithreim = the rolling, rushing of wheels
rothán = small wheel
rothmol = wheel of a water mill, gyration, scrimmage
Irish (Gaeilge) roth [ɾˠɔ(h)/ɾˠɞh] = wheel, bicycle
rothach = wheeled, cyclic(al)
rothadóir = wheelwright
rothaí = cyclist
rothaigh = to cycle
rothaíocht = cycling
rothán = small wheel, loop, ring, hank
rothar = bicycle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) roth [r̪ˠɔh] = wheel, halo, crown (in a mill)
roth-fiaclach = cog
roth-gaoithe = ventilator
roth-uisge = water wheel
roth-mór = millwheel, ferris wheel
rothag = small wheel, small circle
rothaiche = wheel, cyclist
rothair = bicycle, bike, cycle, roller, cylinder
rothaireachd = cycling
rothair-motair = motorbike, motorcycle
rothalan [r̪ˠɔhəl̪ˠan] = person or animal running in circles
Manx (Gaelg) roar = bicycle, bike
roaragh = cyclist
roaraght = cycling
roar-bree = motorcycle
roar-slieau = mountain bike
Proto-Brythonic *rrod = wheel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rot, rod, rhôd = wheel
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhod [r̥oːd] = wheel, spinning wheel, waterwheel, cogwheel, (round) shield), sphere, circle, orbit, firmament, heaven, (wheel of) fortune, fate, course, circuit, round, district, world
rhod ddŵr waterwheel
rhod wynt = windmill
rhodellaf, rhoedellu = to whirl, twirl
rhodig = small wheel, rowel (of spur)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ros, rôs = circle, wheel
Cornish (Kernewek) ros [ˈɹoːz] = wheel
ros lovan = winch
ros melin = mill wheel
ros parys = spare wheel
ros velin = millwheel
ros-lewya = steering wheel
rosella = to rotate, spin
rosellans = rotation
rosik = castor
roskesya = roller skating
roskis = rollerskates
Middle Breton (Brezonec) rod, rot = wheel, spinning wheel
rot melin, rod milin = millwheel
Breton (Brezhoneg) rod [ˈroːt] = wheel
rod-avel = wind turbine
rod-vilin = millwheel
rodal = to do a cartwheel
rodeg = cycle
rodell = loop
rodellig = small curl, bouclette

Etymology: from PIE *Hret- (to run) [source].

The city of Rouen, the capital of Normandy in northern France, gets its name from the Latin Rōtomagus, which was the chief city of the Veliocasses in Gallia Lugdunensis (where Rouen is now), and was borrowed from Gaulish, from the Proto-Celtic *rotos (wheel) and *magos (field) [source].

Other words from the same roots include words for to run in Celtic languages, the Welsh name Rhys, and rota, rotor and rotate in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *drokos = wheel
Old Irish (Goídelc) droch [drox] = wheel, circlet
drochet [ˈdrox(ʲ)ed] = bridge – from droch (wheel) and sét (path, way)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) droch = wheel, circlet
drochet, drochat, droget = bridge, causeway
Irish (Gaeilge) droichead = bridge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) droch [drɔx] = coach wheel (obselete)
drochaid = bridge
Manx (Gaelg) droghad = bridge, arch, gantry

Etymology: from PIE *dʰregʰ- (to run, drag, pull) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include drag, draw (to pull, drag) and retract in English, and դուրգ (durg – potter’s wheel) in Armenian [source].

Proto-Celtic *olēnā = wheel
Old Welsh olun, olin = wheel, circular, to rotate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) olwyn, olvyn, ōlwyn = wheel
olwynnyawc, olŵynog, olwŷnog = wheeled, turning, revolving
Welsh (Cymraeg) olwyn [ˈɔlʊɨ̯n/ˈoːlʊi̯n] = wheel, shaft
olwyn gocos cog wheel
olwyn ddŵr = waterwheel
olwyn lywio = streering wheel
olwyndro = cartwheel
olwyndroi = to cartwheel, spin
olwyn(i)af, olwyn(i)o = to wheel, turn, revolve, roll
olwyn(i)og = wheeled, turning, revolving
olwynol = wheel-shaped, circular, revolving
olwynwr = wheelwright, cyclist

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *Heh₃l- (to bow, bend, elbow) [source].

Words from elbow in Celtic languages come from the same PIE root via the Proto-Celtic *olīnā (elbow, angle) [more details], as do the English words elbow and ulna (one of the bones in the forearm, a.k.a. elbow bone) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cuidhil [kiːlʲ/kiəlʲ] = spinning wheel (in Antrim)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuidheall [kujəl̪ˠ] = wheel, coil
cuidheall-shnìomha = spinning wheel
cuibheall-iteachain = bobbin wheel
saor-chuidhleachan = wheelwright
Manx (Gaelg) queeyl(l) = wheel
queeyl chairt = cartwheel
queeylit = wheeled
queeyllagh = cartwheel, rotary, wheeled, wheeling
queelylley = rolling, wheeling whirling

Etymology: from Scots quhe(i)l (wheel), from Middle English whel (wheel), etc [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuibhle [kuilə] = wheel, coil
cathair-cuibhle = wheelchair
cuibhle-shnìomha = ship’s wheel, steering wheel
cuibhlearachd = wheeling, rolling, coiling
cuibhle = millwheel, ferris wheel
cuibhleas = wheelhouse
cuibhleag = small coil, small eddy
Welsh (Cymraeg) whil, wil = wheel
w(h)ilaf, w(h)ilo = to wheel, roll
w(h)ilber = wheelbarrow
w(h)ilberaid = wheelbarrowful
w(h)ilber(i)o = to carry in a wheelbarrow
whilbws = wheelhouse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) wheyl, wheal, whél = work, wheel

Etymology: from English wheel, from Middle English whel (wheel), from Old English hwēol (wheel), from Proto-Germanic *hweulō (wheels), from PIE *kʷékʷlom (wheel) from *kʷel- (to turn) [source].

According to MacBain’s An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, the Gaelic cuibhle was borrowed from English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Words for hard and related things in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *kaletos = hard, strong, cruel
Gaulish Caleti (ethnonym)
Old Irish (Goídelc) calad = hard, stingy, hardship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) calad, calath, caladh = hard, stingy
Irish (Gaeilge) caladh [ˈkɑl̪ˠə/ˈkalˠə/ˈkalˠu] = hard
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) caled, kalet, calett = hard, rough, cruel
caledi, kaledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
kaledwch, cledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
Welsh (Cymraeg) caled = hard, rough, cruel, unfeeling, sore, severe, strict, thrifty, obstinate, abstruse, difficult, hardy, tough
caledaf, caledu, caledo, cledo = to harden, dry, grow unfeeling or stubborn
calededd = hardness, severity
caleden = callus
caledfyd = hardship, distress, adversity
caled-galon = hard-hearted, callous
caledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
caledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
caledwedd = (computer) hardware
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cales, calas, calys = hard, difficult
caletter, calatter = hardness, difficulty
calessa, calassa = hardest
Cornish (Kernewek) kales = difficult, hard, severe, tough
kalesweyth = hardware
kaletter = difficulty, hardness
penn kales = obstinate, stubborn
Middle Breton (Brezonec) calet, kalet = hard, deep (sleep)
caletaat, kaletaat = to harden, toughen up
caleded = hardness, toughness
caleder, calletter, caleder = hardness, toughness, difficulty
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalet = hard, raw, crude
kaleted = hardness, toughness
kaleter = endurance
kaledenn = hard, callus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱlH-eto- (cold), related to *kal- (hard) [source]. Words from the same roots include callus and callous in English, калити [kǎːliti] (to harden, temper) in Serbian, and callo (callus, corn, tripe) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kroudis/*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúaid = hard, harsh, stern
crúadach = cruel, harsh
crúaide = hardness
crúadaigid = to harden, stiffen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúaid, cruaidh = hard(y), harsh, stern, strict
crúadach, cruadach = hard, cruel, harsh
crúadagid, cruadhaigh = hardens, stiffens
crúadáil, cruadhál = hardship, cruelty
crúadóc, crúadhóg = hardship, strait, difficulty
crúaide, cruaide = hardness, harshness
Irish (Gaeilge) crua [kɾˠuə/kɾˠuəɟ/kɾˠuəj] = hard, firm, difficult, severe
cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachan = hardening
cruachás = predicament, difficulty, distress
cruachásach = in a difficulty, distressed
cruacht = hardness, hardiness, stinginess
cruara = hardware
cruas = hardness, stinginess
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
cruaidh-chàs = danger, peril, difficulty, hardship
cruaidh-fhortan = misfortune
cruaidhead [kruəjəd] = degree of hardness
cruaidheadh [kruəjəɣ] = solidifying, hardening, drying
Manx (Gaelg) creoi = adamant, difficult, hardy, heartless, hard, solid, tough, bitter (frost), blistering (language)
creoghey = to harden, forbear, set against
creoighey = to harden, stiffen; hardening
creoidys = hardihood, hardness
creoighys = callosity, hardness, obduracy

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *krū- (blood), from Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂- (blood outside the body) [source]. Words from the same roots include crude, cruel and raw in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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