Near and Close

Words for near, close and and and related things in Celtic languages.

A group of meerkats

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *onkus = at
*onkus-tus = near, close, and
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocus [ˈoɡus] = near, close, nearness, proximity, and
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocus, acus = and, near, nearness, proximity
com(ḟ)ocus, comacus = near, proximate, neighbouring; equidistant, proximity; relationship
focus = near, close
bean fagas, bean ḟogas = kinswoman
Irish (Gaeilge) agus (⁊) [ˈɑɡəsˠ/ˈaɡəsˠ] = and, while, although, as
agusóir = halting, inarticulate, speaker
aguisín = addition, addendum
fogas [ˈfˠʌɡəsˠ] = nearness, closeness, near, close
fogasghaol = near relationship, near relative
foisceacht = nearness, proximity
bráthair fogas = near kinsman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) agus (⁊) [agəs] = and, plus, as, while, although
agusan = Tironian/Gaelic ampersand (⁊)
fagas [fagəs] = close, near
fagasg [fagəsg] = proximity, nearness
fagasachd [fagəsəxg] = adjacency, nearness, proximity
fagasach [fagəsəx] = adjacent
faisg [faʃgʲ] = close, near
faisgead [faʃgʲəd] = degree of nearness/proximity
Manx (Gaelg) as = and, as
faggys = almost, close, contiguous, handy, near, nearby, neighbouring
faggys-yalloo = closeup
faggysaght = adjacency, nearness
Old Welsh ha, hac, hay, ac = and
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) a(c)= and
agos = near, close
agoseieit = close relations or friends
Welsh (Cymraeg) a(c) [a(k), a(ɡ)] = and
agos [ˈaɡɔs / ˈa(ː)ɡɔs] = near, close, almost, nearly, on the verge of, about to
agosâd = a drawing near, approach
agosaf, agosi = to draw near, approach
agosaol = approaching
agoseiaid = close relations or friends
agosiad = close relation or friend
agosrwydd = closeness, nearness, proximity
agoster = closeness, nearness, proximity
Old Cornish ha = and
ogos = near, close
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) ha(g), a = and
ogas, oges, ogos, agos = near, neighbouring
Cornish (Kernewek) ha(g) [ha(ɡ)] = and, plus, while
hag erel (h.e.) = etc.
hag oll = moreover
ogas = adjoinging, close, near, almost, nearly, vicinity
ogas ha = approximately
ogas lowr = approximate
yn ogas, en ogas = closely, nearby
ogasti, ogatti = almost, nearly
Old Breton a, ha, hac = and
ocos = near, close
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ha, hag, ham, haz = and
hag all, ha a, hag e-se = etc.
hogos, hegos, ogos, egos = almost, barely, close, near
hogoster, hogosder = proximity
hogozik, hogosicq, hogosic = almost, close, near
Breton (Brezhoneg) ha(g) = and
hag all (h.a.) = etc.
hogos = near, close, almost
hogosder = proximity

Etymology: not known [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Teanglann.ie, Am Faclair Beag, Fockleyreen: Manx – English Dictionary, Online Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, Gerlyver Kernewek, Devri : Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

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Blindness

Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wheels

Words for wheel and related words in Celtic languages.

Laxey Wheel

Proto-Celtic *rotos = wheel, chariot
Gaulish *Rotomagos = placename [see below]
Old Irish (Goídelc) roth = disc, sphere, wheel
rothmol = gyration
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) roth, routh = wheel, something circular or wheel-shaped, disc, sphere, circular brooch, wheel brooch, loop, noose
roithled = the act of rotating or twirling
roithlén = wheel
roithreim = the rolling, rushing of wheels
rothán = small wheel
rothmol = wheel of a water mill, gyration, scrimmage
Irish (Gaeilge) roth [ɾˠɔ(h)/ɾˠɞh] = wheel, bicycle
rothach = wheeled, cyclic(al)
rothadóir = wheelwright
rothaí = cyclist
rothaigh = to cycle
rothaíocht = cycling
rothán = small wheel, loop, ring, hank
rothar = bicycle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) roth [r̪ˠɔh] = wheel, halo, crown (in a mill)
roth-fiaclach = cog
roth-gaoithe = ventilator
roth-uisge = water wheel
roth-mór = millwheel, ferris wheel
rothag = small wheel, small circle
rothaiche = wheel, cyclist
rothair = bicycle, bike, cycle, roller, cylinder
rothaireachd = cycling
rothair-motair = motorbike, motorcycle
rothalan [r̪ˠɔhəl̪ˠan] = person or animal running in circles
Manx (Gaelg) roar = bicycle, bike
roaragh = cyclist
roaraght = cycling
roar-bree = motorcycle
roar-slieau = mountain bike
Proto-Brythonic *rrod = wheel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rot, rod, rhôd = wheel
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhod [r̥oːd] = wheel, spinning wheel, waterwheel, cogwheel, (round) shield), sphere, circle, orbit, firmament, heaven, (wheel of) fortune, fate, course, circuit, round, district, world
rhod ddŵr waterwheel
rhod wynt = windmill
rhodellaf, rhoedellu = to whirl, twirl
rhodig = small wheel, rowel (of spur)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ros, rôs = circle, wheel
Cornish (Kernewek) ros [ˈɹoːz] = wheel
ros lovan = winch
ros melin = mill wheel
ros parys = spare wheel
ros velin = millwheel
ros-lewya = steering wheel
rosella = to rotate, spin
rosellans = rotation
rosik = castor
roskesya = roller skating
roskis = rollerskates
Middle Breton (Brezonec) rod, rot = wheel, spinning wheel
rot melin, rod milin = millwheel
Breton (Brezhoneg) rod [ˈroːt] = wheel
rod-avel = wind turbine
rod-vilin = millwheel
rodal = to do a cartwheel
rodeg = cycle
rodell = loop
rodellig = small curl, bouclette

Etymology: from PIE *Hret- (to run) [source].

The city of Rouen, the capital of Normandy in northern France, gets its name from the Latin Rōtomagus, which was the chief city of the Veliocasses in Gallia Lugdunensis (where Rouen is now), and was borrowed from Gaulish, from the Proto-Celtic *rotos (wheel) and *magos (field) [source].

Other words from the same roots include words for to run in Celtic languages, the Welsh name Rhys, and rota, rotor and rotate in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *drokos = wheel
Old Irish (Goídelc) droch [drox] = wheel, circlet
drochet [ˈdrox(ʲ)ed] = bridge – from droch (wheel) and sét (path, way)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) droch = wheel, circlet
drochet, drochat, droget = bridge, causeway
Irish (Gaeilge) droichead = bridge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) droch [drɔx] = coach wheel (obselete)
drochaid = bridge
Manx (Gaelg) droghad = bridge, arch, gantry

Etymology: from PIE *dʰregʰ- (to run, drag, pull) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include drag, draw (to pull, drag) and retract in English, and դուրգ (durg – potter’s wheel) in Armenian [source].

Proto-Celtic *olēnā = wheel
Old Welsh olun, olin = wheel, circular, to rotate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) olwyn, olvyn, ōlwyn = wheel
olwynnyawc, olŵynog, olwŷnog = wheeled, turning, revolving
Welsh (Cymraeg) olwyn [ˈɔlʊɨ̯n/ˈoːlʊi̯n] = wheel, shaft
olwyn gocos cog wheel
olwyn ddŵr = waterwheel
olwyn lywio = streering wheel
olwyndro = cartwheel
olwyndroi = to cartwheel, spin
olwyn(i)af, olwyn(i)o = to wheel, turn, revolve, roll
olwyn(i)og = wheeled, turning, revolving
olwynol = wheel-shaped, circular, revolving
olwynwr = wheelwright, cyclist

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *Heh₃l- (to bow, bend, elbow) [source].

Words from elbow in Celtic languages come from the same PIE root via the Proto-Celtic *olīnā (elbow, angle) [more details], as do the English words elbow and ulna (one of the bones in the forearm, a.k.a. elbow bone) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cuidhil [kiːlʲ/kiəlʲ] = spinning wheel (in Antrim)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuidheall [kujəl̪ˠ] = wheel, coil
cuidheall-shnìomha = spinning wheel
cuibheall-iteachain = bobbin wheel
saor-chuidhleachan = wheelwright
Manx (Gaelg) queeyl(l) = wheel
queeyl chairt = cartwheel
queeylit = wheeled
queeyllagh = cartwheel, rotary, wheeled, wheeling
queelylley = rolling, wheeling whirling

Etymology: from Scots quhe(i)l (wheel), from Middle English whel (wheel), etc [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuibhle [kuilə] = wheel, coil
cathair-cuibhle = wheelchair
cuibhle-shnìomha = ship’s wheel, steering wheel
cuibhlearachd = wheeling, rolling, coiling
cuibhle = millwheel, ferris wheel
cuibhleas = wheelhouse
cuibhleag = small coil, small eddy
Welsh (Cymraeg) whil, wil = wheel
w(h)ilaf, w(h)ilo = to wheel, roll
w(h)ilber = wheelbarrow
w(h)ilberaid = wheelbarrowful
w(h)ilber(i)o = to carry in a wheelbarrow
whilbws = wheelhouse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) wheyl, wheal, whél = work, wheel

Etymology: from English wheel, from Middle English whel (wheel), from Old English hwēol (wheel), from Proto-Germanic *hweulō (wheels), from PIE *kʷékʷlom (wheel) from *kʷel- (to turn) [source].

According to MacBain’s An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, the Gaelic cuibhle was borrowed from English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard

Words for hard and related things in Celtic languages.

Hard

Proto-Celtic *kaletos = hard, strong, cruel
Gaulish Caleti (ethnonym)
Old Irish (Goídelc) calad = hard, stingy, hardship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) calad, calath, caladh = hard, stingy
Irish (Gaeilge) caladh [ˈkɑl̪ˠə/ˈkalˠə/ˈkalˠu] = hard
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) caled, kalet, calett = hard, rough, cruel
caledi, kaledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
kaledwch, cledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
Welsh (Cymraeg) caled = hard, rough, cruel, unfeeling, sore, severe, strict, thrifty, obstinate, abstruse, difficult, hardy, tough
caledaf, caledu, caledo, cledo = to harden, dry, grow unfeeling or stubborn
calededd = hardness, severity
caleden = callus
caledfyd = hardship, distress, adversity
caled-galon = hard-hearted, callous
caledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
caledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
caledwedd = (computer) hardware
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cales, calas, calys = hard, difficult
caletter, calatter = hardness, difficulty
calessa, calassa = hardest
Cornish (Kernewek) kales = difficult, hard, severe, tough
kalesweyth = hardware
kaletter = difficulty, hardness
penn kales = obstinate, stubborn
Middle Breton (Brezonec) calet, kalet = hard, deep (sleep)
caletaat, kaletaat = to harden, toughen up
caleded = hardness, toughness
caleder, calletter, caleder = hardness, toughness, difficulty
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalet = hard, raw, crude
kaleted = hardness, toughness
kaleter = endurance
kaledenn = hard, callus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱlH-eto- (cold), related to *kal- (hard) [source]. Words from the same roots include callus and callous in English, калити [kǎːliti] (to harden, temper) in Serbian, and callo (callus, corn, tripe) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kroudis/*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúaid = hard, harsh, stern
crúadach = cruel, harsh
crúaide = hardness
crúadaigid = to harden, stiffen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúaid, cruaidh = hard(y), harsh, stern, strict
crúadach, cruadach = hard, cruel, harsh
crúadagid, cruadhaigh = hardens, stiffens
crúadáil, cruadhál = hardship, cruelty
crúadóc, crúadhóg = hardship, strait, difficulty
crúaide, cruaide = hardness, harshness
Irish (Gaeilge) crua [kɾˠuə/kɾˠuəɟ/kɾˠuəj] = hard, firm, difficult, severe
cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachan = hardening
cruachás = predicament, difficulty, distress
cruachásach = in a difficulty, distressed
cruacht = hardness, hardiness, stinginess
cruara = hardware
cruas = hardness, stinginess
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
cruaidh-chàs = danger, peril, difficulty, hardship
cruaidh-fhortan = misfortune
cruaidhead [kruəjəd] = degree of hardness
cruaidheadh [kruəjəɣ] = solidifying, hardening, drying
Manx (Gaelg) creoi = adamant, difficult, hardy, heartless, hard, solid, tough, bitter (frost), blistering (language)
creoghey = to harden, forbear, set against
creoighey = to harden, stiffen; hardening
creoidys = hardihood, hardness
creoighys = callosity, hardness, obduracy

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *krū- (blood), from Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂- (blood outside the body) [source]. Words from the same roots include crude, cruel and raw in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hundred

Words for a hundred and related things in Celtic languages:

hundred

Proto-Celtic *kantom = hundred
*kantometos = hundredth
Gaulish *canta = hundred
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét [kʲeːd] = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétmad [ˈkʲeːdṽað] = hundredth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ced, céit, cét = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétach, cetach = hundredfold, possossing a hundred
cétmad = hundredth
Irish (Gaeilge) céad [ciːa̯d̪ˠ/ceːd̪ˠ] = hundred, century, hundredweight, great, long
céadach = hundredfold, great, immense
céadú = hundredth
céadchosach = centipede
céad míle fáilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceud [kʲiəd] = hundred
ceudamh [kʲiadəv] (100ᵐʰ) = hundredth 100ᵗʰ)
ceudad [kʲiədəd] = percent, percentage
ceud mìle fàilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
ceudameatair = centimetre
ceudamhail [kʲiədəval] = percentile
ceud-chasach = centipede
ceudach [kʲiədəx] = hundredfold
Manx (Gaelg) keead [kiːəd] = hundred, century
keeadoo = hundredth
keead blein = centenary
keead filley = hundredfold
keead liauyr/mooar = long hundred
keead-choshagh = centipede
Proto-Brythonic *kant [kant] = hundred
Old Welsh cant = hundred
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cant, can = hundred
canvet, canuet, kannvet, canved = hundredth
cantref, cantrew, cantreuyt = hundred, cantred, province, district
Welsh (Cymraeg) cant, can [kant/kan] = hundred, a host, hundredweight, percentage; century
canfed (100fed) = hundredth (100th), centesimal, century
canrif = century
cantref = hundred, cantred, province, district
cantro = a hundred times, many times, twisted many times
cantroed = centipede, a hundred feet
cantwll = a hundred holes, riddled with holes
hanner cant = fifty
cant a mil = a hundred and one, a large number
can diolch = many thanks
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cans = hundred
canquyth, canswyth = a hundred times
Cornish (Kernewek) kans = hundred
kansves = hundredth
kansbledhen = century
kanskradh = centigrade
kanskweyth = a hundred times
kansplek = hundredfold
kansran = percent(age)
Old Breton cant = hundred
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cant, cantt, can, chant = hundred, 100 pounds (lb)
canuet, cantvet, cantved = hundredth
cantved = century
candad, cantad = around hundred
cant(-)doubl = centuple
cantenier, candener, candenyer = centurion
Breton (Brezhoneg) kant [kãn(t)] = hundred
kantvet [ˈkãn.vet] = hundredth
kantved [ˈkãn.vet] = century
kantad [ˈkãn.tat] = around hundred

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) [source].

Words from the same roots include hundred, century, centigrade, hecatontome (a very large number of books) and hecatologue (a code of 100 rules) in English, and words related to hundred in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Twenty

Words for twenty and related things in Celtic languages:

twenty

Proto-Celtic *wikantī = twenty
Gaulish uoconti = twenty
Old Irish (Goídelc) fiche [ˈfʲixʲe] = twenty
fichetmad = twentieth
fichtige = twenty day/year period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fiche, fichet, fichit, fichtea = twenty, a score
fichetmad, fichatmath, fichetmudh = twentieth
fichetech = pertaining to twenty
fichtige = a period of twenty (days, years, etc)
Irish (Gaeilge) fiche [ˈfʲɪhə/ˈfʲɪçə/fʲiː] = twenty
(an) fichiú = twentieth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fichead [fiçəd] = twenty, a score
ficheadamh [fiçədəv] (20ᵐʰ) = twentieth (20ᵗʰ)
fichead-shliosnach = icosahedron (a polyhedron with 20 faces)
fichead-fillte = twentyfold
Manx (Gaelg) feed [fiːdʒ] = twenty, a score
feedoo, (yn) eedoo = (the) twentieth
feed cheead = two thousand (twenty hundred)
Proto-Brythonic *ʉgėnt = twenty
Cumbric giggy, jiggit = twenty
Old Welsh uceint = twenty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ugein, ugeint, vgein = twenty
vgeinvet, ugeinuet = twentieth
ugeinwyr, vgainwyr, vgain-wr, vgain-ŵr = twenty men
Welsh (Cymraeg) ugain [ˈɪɡai̯n/ˈiːɡai̯n] = twenty, score, twenty-pound note
ugeinfed [ɪˈɡei̯nvɛd] (20fed) = twentieth
ugeiniol = pertaining to twenty, denoting twenty
ugeinw(y)r = twenty men
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ugans, hugens = twenty, a score
Cornish (Kernewek) ugens, ugans = twenty
ugensves = twentieth
Old Breton ucent = twenty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) vgent, uiguent, ugent = twenty
ugentved = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty
ugentvedenni, ugentvedenna = to divide by twenty
ugentveder = a commemoration of 20 years
ugentvederel = vigesimal (20-base numeral system)
Breton (Brezhoneg) ugent [ˈyːɡẽn(t)] = twenty
ugentvet = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti (twenty) from *wídḱm̥ti (twenty) [source].

Words from the same roots include بیست‎ (bist – twenty) in Persian (Farsi), बीस (bīs – twenty) in Hindi and Nepali, বিশ (biś – twenty) in Bengali and વીસ (vīs – twenty) in Gujarati, and words for twenty in some other Indo-European languages languages [source].

Incidentally, the English words twenty, and words for twenty in other Germanic languages, are not cognate. Instead they come from the Proto-Germanic roots *twain- (two) ‎and *-tigaz (group of ten) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Spears and Javelins

Words for spear, javelin and related things in Celtic languages:

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Proto-Celtic *gaisos = spear
Gaulish *gaisos = spear
*Ariogaisos = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) gae [ɡai̯] = javelin, spear, penis
gae cró = gush of blood, haemorrhage, unhealed wound
gae gréne = sunbeam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gae, ga = spear, javelin; ray, beam
ga-ín = little javelin
gaíde = armed with a spear
Irish (Gaeilge) ga [ɡa/ɡaː/ɡah] = spear, dart, sting, ray (of light), radius, suppository, (fishing) gaff
ga-chatóideach = cathode ray
ga-gréine = sunbeam
ga-gealaí = moonbeam
ga-shiméadracht = radial symmetry
gáma-gha = gamma ray
X-gha = X-ray
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gath [ɡah] = dart, beam, ray (of light), sting, barb, knot (in wood), shooting pain, sprout
gath-gealaich, gath-luain = moonbeam
gath-grèine = sunbeam
gath-leusair = laser beam
gath-x, gath-òmair = X-ray
gath cathod = cathode ray
gath-solais = ray of light, light beam
Manx (Gaelg) goull = beam, dart, ray
goull eayst = moonbeam
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guaew, gvoev, gwaew, gwayw = lance, spear, javelin
gwaewdwnn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwaew ffon, gwaiw ffon = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwayw [ɡweɨ̯.ʊ/ˈɡwei̯.u] = lance, spear, javelin; shooting pain, stab, stitch, pang
gwaywawr, gwaywor = spearman, lancer, pikeman
gwaywdwn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwayw-fwyell = halberd
gwaywffon [ˈɡweɨ̯wfɔn/ˈɡwei̯wfɔn] = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Old Cornish (hoch-)wuyu = spear
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guw = spear. lance, javelin
Cornish (Kernewek) guw = spear
guwa = to spear
Old Breton (guu)goiou = spear
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goaff, goaf, goao, gwaf = spear, stamen, boat hook
Breton (Brezhoneg) goaf = spear, pike, javelin, stamen

Etymology: from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz [ˈɣɑi̯.zɑz] (spear, pike, javelin), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰoysós (throwing spear), from *ǵʰey- (to throw, impel) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gezi [ɡe̞.s̻i] (arrow) in Basque (via Latin and Gaulish), գայիսոն [ɡɑjiˈsɔn/kʰɑjiˈsɔn] (sceptre) in Armenian (via Ancient Greek), gaesum (a Gaulish javelin) in Latin, and γαῖσος [ɡâi̯.sos] (a Gaulish javelin) in Ancient Greek [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include garfish (any fish of the needlefish family Belonidae) in English [source], geer (spear) in Dutch, Ger (spear) in German, geir (spear) in Icelandic, keihäs (spear, javelin, pike) in Finnish, [source].

My surname, Ager, possibly comes from the same Proto-Germanic root as well, via the Old English name Ēadgār, from ēad (happiness, prosperity), and gār (spear) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Decades

Words for ten and related things in Celtic languages:

ten

Proto-Celtic *dekam = ten
*dekametos = tenth
Celtiberian tekametam = tenth
Gaulish decan = ten
decametos = tenth
Old Irish (Goídelc) deich [dʲexʲ] = ten
dechmad = tenth, ten days
deichenbor = ten people
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) deich, dech = ten
dechmad, deachmadh = tenth, ten days
deichenbor, dechnabar, dechnebur = ten people
deichenborach = belonging to a company of ten
deichthriub = The Ten Tribes of Israel
Irish (Gaeilge) deich [dʲɛç/dʲɛh/dʲɛ] = ten
(an) deichiú = tenth, tenth part
deichniúr = ten people
deichbhliantúil = decennial (consisting of or lasting 10 years; occuring every 10 years)
deachú = tenth part, tithe
deachúil = decimal
deachúlaigh = to decimalize
deachúlú = decimalization
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) deich [dʲeç] = ten
deicheamh [dʲeçəv] (10ᵐʰ) = tenth (10ᵗʰ)
deichnear [dʲeçnər] = ten (people)
deich ar fhichead = thirty
Na Deich Àitheantan = The Ten Commandments
deichead [dʲeçəd] = decade, decimal
deicheachadh = (act of) decimalising, decimalisation
deich-fillte = tenfold
Manx (Gaelg) jeih [d͡ʒɛi] = ten
(yn) jeihoo = (the) tenth
jeihaght = decade, ten
jeih keead = thousand
jeih filley = ten-fold
Jeih Annaghyn = Ten Commandments
Proto-Brythonic *deg [dɛːɡ] = ten
*degβ̃ed [dɛɡˈβ̃ɛːd] = tenth
Cumbric dig, dick, dik = ten
Old Welsh dec = ten
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dec = ten
decuet, decvet, decfed = tenth
decuettyd = tenth day
dec a hugein(t) = thirty
dec a dugein(t) = fifty
dec a phedwar ugein(t) = ninety
degeir = the Ten Commandments, Decalogue
degniev = ten days
deguyr, degwyr = ten men
Welsh (Cymraeg) deg [deːɡ] = ten
degfed [ˈdɛɡvɛd/ˈdɛɡvad] (10fed) = tenth
degfetydd = tenth day
deg ar hugain = thirty
deg a thrigain = seventy
deg a phedwar ugain = ninety
dega(w)d = decade
degiad = decimal
degoes = ten ages or lifetimes, prolonged life
degol = decimal, metric, tenth part
degolaf, degoli = to decimalize; decimate, tithe
degoliad = decimalization, decmiation, a tithing
dengair = the Ten Commandments, Decalogue
dengnïau = ten days
dengnyn, dengw(y)r = ten men, ten persons
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dec, dék, dég = ten
dege, degves = tenth
dek warn-ugens, dék war-nugens, degwarnygnas = thirty
deg ha dugans = fifty
Cornish (Kernewek) deg = ten
degves = tenth
deg warn ugens = thirty
deg ha dew ugens = fifty
deg ha tri ugens = seventy
deg ha peswar ugens = ninety
degowek, degoweges = teenage, teenager
degvledhen = decade
Old Breton dec = ten
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dec, dêc, deg, dégeu, dek = ten
decuet, dekved = tenth
dec ha triuguent, dec ha tri vguent = seventy
dec ha peuaruguent = ninety
dek kant, dec-cant, dek-kant = thousand
Breton (Brezhoneg) dek = ten
dekvet = tenth
dek ha tri-ugent = seventy
dek ha pevar-ugent = ninety
Dekalog = Decalogue, the Ten Commandments

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥ (ten) and *deḱm̥tós (tenth) [source].

English words from the same roots include ten, decade, decimal and decathlon [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Eightsome

Words for eight and related things in Celtic languages:

eight

Proto-Celtic *oxtū = eight
*oxtūmetos = eighth
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocht [ˈoxt] = eight
ochtmad [ˈoxtṽað] = eighth
ochtar = a group of eight people
ochtmoga = eighty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocht = eight
ochtmad = eighth
ochtur, ochtor, ochtar = eight people/things
ochta = a group of eight things, an octad
ochtmoga, ochtmogo, ochtmogat = eighty
Irish (Gaeilge) ocht [ɔxt̪ˠ/ʌxt̪ˠ]= eight
ochtar = eight (people)
ochtú = eighth, eighth part
ocht déag = eighteen
ochtó = eighty
ochtddach = having eight parts, eightfold
ochtábhó = octavo
ochtach, ochtáibh = octave
ochtagán = octagon
ochtapas = octopus
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ochd [ɔxg] = eight
ochdamh [ɔxgəv] (8ᵐʰ) = eighth (8ᵗʰ)
ochdnar [ɔxgnər] = eight people
ochd-fillte = octuple, eightfold, eight-ply
ochd-shliosach = octagon, octahedron
ochd-chasach = octopus
Manx (Gaelg) hoght [hoːx(t)] = eight, octuple
hoghtoo = eighth
hoght jeig = eighteen
hoghtad = eighty
hoght filley, hoght keayrtyn = eightfold
oght-lhiatteeane, hoghtin = octagon
hoght lhiatteeagh = octagonal
hoght-choshagh = octopus
Gaulish oxtu = eight
oxtumetos = eighth
Proto-Brythonic *üiθ [yɨ̯θ] = eight
*üɨθβ̃ed = eighth
Cumbric owera, hovera, haoves = eight
Old Welsh oith = eight
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uith, wyth, vyth, ỽyth, oeth [sei̯θ] = eight
wythuet, wythued, ỽythuet = eighth
wythnos, vythnos, ỽythnos = week
petheunos, pytheonos, pethawnos = fortnight (two weeks)
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyth [uːɨ̯θ/ʊi̯θ] = eight, octave,
wythfed (8fed) [ˈʊɨ̯θvɛd/ˈʊi̯θvɛd] = eighth, one of eight
wyth deg = eighty
wythdegai = eighties
wythawd = octet, octave
wythblyg = octavo, eightfold, having eight parts
wythnyn = eight persons, eight men
wythochr = octahedron, octagon, octagonal
wythnos [ˈʊɨ̯θnɔs] = week
penwythnos = weekend
pythefnos = fortnight (two weeks)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) eath = eight
eathas = eighth
eitag, eythek = eighteen
Cornish (Kernewek) eth = eight
ethves = eighth. octave
etek = eighteen
etegves = eighteenth
Old Breton (Brethonoc) eith = eight
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eiz = eight
eizuet, aihuet, eizved = eighth
eiz-ugeñt, heiz-ugent = 160
eiz-cognecq = octagonal
eiz-cornecq = octagonal, octagon
eizuet, aihuet, eizvet, eizved, eihvet = eighth
éih dyad, ein-déad, eih-diat = about eight
eizdezyeg, eizdeziek = weekly
eizvedi = to divide into eight
Breton (Brezhoneg) eizh = eight
eizhved = eighth
eikont = eighty (usually pevar-ugent)
eizhkognek = octagonal

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓw (eight) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include eight, and words beginning with octa-/octo-, such as October, octane and octopus in English, and words related to eight in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic