Mozarabic (Latín / לטן / لتن‎)

Mozarabic, or Andalusi Romance, is the name given to the collection of Romance dialects that were spoken in Muslim-controlled parts of the Iberian Peninsula until about the 13th century. They developed from Late Latin between the 5th and the 8th centuries AD. By the 13th century they had mostly been replaced by Castillian, which became modern Spanish.

The people who spoke Mozarabic called it Latina or Latín, and thought of it as a form of Latin. During the 19th century Spanish historians start to refer to Christians in Spain living under Muslim rule as Mozarabs and to their language as Mozarabic. The word Mozarab comes from the Andalusi Arabic مُستَعرَب, (musta'rab), from the Classical Arabic musta'rib, which means "who adopts the ways of the Arabs".

There was no standard way of writing Mozarabic. When it was written, the Arabic script was most commonly used, and the Latin and Hebrew scripts were also used to some extent. It was first written in the 11th century.

Arabic alphabet for Mozarabic

Arabic alphabet for Mozarabic

Hebrew alphabet for Mozarabic

Hebrew alphabet for Mozarabic

Latin alphabet for Mozarabic

Latin alphabet for Mozarabic


Download alphabet charts for Mozarabic (Excel)

Corrections by Michael Peter Füstumum

Sample text in Mozarabic

Sample text in Mozarabic


דשרו מיו סדלו
ן בונהאלב שארה כם ראיה...
דשולי אשיד אן ואד אל חגארה׃

Transliteration (Latin alphabet)

Desd' cand' meu Çidyelo vényd
¡tan bona albixara!
com' rayo de sol éxyd
en Wad-al-ḥaŷāra

Translation (Spanish)

Desde el momento en que mi señor viene,
¡Qué buenas albricias!
Como un rayo de sol sale
en Guadalajara

Translation (English)

Since the moment my lord comes,
What good joys!
As a sunbeam comes out
in Guadalajara

Sample text provided by Francisco Peña

Note: This text is an example of a jarcha / kharja, the final refain of a muwashshah, a lyric genre that was used in Al-Andalus, the Islamic part of the Iberian Peninsula. It was written by Yehuda Halevi (c. 1075-c.1140), and is a panegyric in honor of Josef ben Ferrusiel. The transliterations and translation include some words not in the original text, or in the Hebrew transcription. Other versions can be found at:

Sample videos in Mozarabic

Information about Mozarabic | Phrases


Information about Mozarabicárabe

Romance languages

Aragonese, Aranese, Aromanian, Asturian, Catalan, Corsican, Dalmatian, Emilian-Romagnol, Extremaduran, Fala, Franco-Provençal, French, Friulian, Galician, Gallo, Gascon, Genoese, Guernésiais, Istro-Romanian, Istriot, Italian, Jèrriais, Ladino, Ladin, Ligurian, Lombard, Lorrain, Megleno-Romanian, Mirandese, Moldovan, Monégasque, Mozarabic, Neapolitan, Occitan, Occitan (Auvergnat), Occitan (Languedocien), Occitan (Limousin), Occitan (Provençal), Picard, Piedmontese, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sardinian, Sicilian, Spanish, Valencian, Venetian, Walloon

Languages written with the Arabic script

Adamaua Fulfulde, Afrikaans, Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Bedawi), Arabic (Chadian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Gulf), Arabic (Hassaniya), Arabic (Hejazi), Arabic (Lebanese), Arabic (Libyan), Arabic (Modern Standard), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Najdi), Arabic (Syrian), Arabic (Tunisian), Arwi, Äynu, Azeri, Balanta-Ganja, Balti, Baluchi, Beja, Belarusian, Bosnian, Brahui, Chagatai, Chechen, Chittagonian, Comorian, Crimean Tatar, Dargwa, Dari, Dhatki, Dogri, Domari, Gawar Bati, Gawri, Gilaki, Hausa, Hazaragi, Hindko, Indus Kohistani, Kabyle, Kalkoti, Karakalpak, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khowar, Khorasani Turkic, Khwarezmian, Konkani, Kumzari, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Lezgi, Lop, Luri, Maguindanao, Malay, Malay (Terengganu), Mandinka, Marwari, Mazandarani, Mogholi, Morisco, Mozarabic, Munji, Noakhailla, Nubi, Ormuri, Palula, Parkari Koli, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi, Qashqai, Rajasthani, Rohingya, Salar, Saraiki, Sawi, Serer, Shabaki, Shina, Shughni, Sindhi, Somali, Soninke, Tatar, Tausūg, Tawallammat Tamajaq, Tayart Tamajeq, Torwali, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek, Wakhi, Wanetsi, Wolof, Xiao'erjing, Yidgha

Languages written with the Hebrew script

Aramaic, Bukhori, Domari, Hebrew, Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Juhuri, Knaanic, Ladino, Mozarabic, Yiddish, Yevanic

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page last modified: 14.04.24


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