Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in Pakistan, and also in India and Singapore. In Pakistan it is spoken in Sindh and Balochistan provinces, and in Hyderabad and Karachi, by about 31 million people (in 2017).
In 2011 there were about 1.7 million speakers of Sindhi in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Other countries with Sindhi speakers include the United Arab Emirates (102,000), Oman (25,400), Afghanistan (21,000) and Philippines (20,000).
Sindhi first appeared in writing in the 8th century AD and a number of different scripts have been used to write it, including Khojki, Khudabadi, Devanagari, Gurmukhi and Perso-Arabic. In the 19th century the Khudabadi script was used mainly by traders, the Devanagari script was used by Pandits, the Gurmukhi script was used by Hindu women, and the Perso-Arabic script was used by government officials. Sindhi literature, in particular lyric poetry, began to appear towards the end of the 15th century.
The modern Sindhi abjad is used in Pakistan and is based on the version of the Perso-Arabic script used to write Urdu. It was adopted, under British influence, in 1852.
Corrections provided by Lateef Sagar Shaikh
Hear how to pronounce the Sindhi alphabet:
Har insān āzād pedā thiyo āhe ên pehenje hakka ên vakkār lāe hū barābar jo hakdār āhe. Hunna khe tark ên cetnā jī tākat milī āhe. Ên hunna khe hik b’e je lāe bhāīcāre jī bhāvnā sān kam karaṇ khape.
Transliteration by Sammy Silvers
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
In India Sindhi is also written with a version of the Devanagari script.
National Council for the Promotion of the Sindhi Language
Free Devanagari fonts
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Page last modified: 13.12.21
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