Ladino is a language derived from medieval Spanish, with influences from such languages as Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese, and Mozarabic. Ladino also has vocabulary from Ottoman Turkish, Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic, French, Italian, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. It is variously known as Judaeo-Spanish, Espanyol (Español), Judío, Judesmo, Sefardí and Haketia/Haquetía, Spanyolit or Ladino (לאדינו).
Ladino is spoken by the descendants of the Sefardim or Sephardim, Jews who were expelled from Spain in 1492. There are currently about 100,000 speakers of Ladino in Israel, 8,000 in Turkey, 1,000 in Greece, and several hundred in the USA.
Ladino was historically written with the Hebrew script, usually with the Rashi or Solitreo versions of that script, but is more commonly written with the Latin alphabet these days.
This chart shows the Rashi, Square and Solitreo versions of the Hebrew script for Ladino, with the letter names in the Rashi and Latin scripts, Latin transliterations and IPA transcriptions.
Vowels are indicated in all words, except those borrowed from Hebrew. Alef and sometimes alef he is used for ah; yod for eh or ee; and vav for o or oo; alef and yod for the Spanish sound ey. Additionally, the vowels yod and vav are never shown alone and are preceded by alef in the word i ('and') - alef yod - and in the word o ('or') - alef vav.
This is the Latin orthography for Ladino used and promoted by Aki Yerushalayim, a Ladino magazine published in Israel by the Sefarad Association and the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino.
קאדח בנאדם אי בנאדם נאסי פוררו אי איגואו אין דינייידאד אין דיריג׳וס. טודוס סון בעלה ראזון אי קונסיינסיה אי דיב׳ין קומפורטארסין לוס אונוס ב׳ירסו לוס אוטרוס קון פראטירנידאד.
Kada benadam i benadam nase forro i igual en dinyidad i en derechos. Todos son baale razon i konsiensia i deven komportarsen los unos verso los otros kon fraternidad.
Information about the Ladino alphabets and the sample texts were compiled by Michael Peter Füstumum
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Information about Ladino / Judaeo-Spanish
Ladinokomunita - Ladino Preservation Council
Jewish Language Research Website
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Page last modified: 23.04.21
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