Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Hiding & Concealment

Words for hide, conceal and related words in Celtic languages.

hiding

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kelo- = to hide
*keleti = to hide, conceal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ceilid = to hide, conceal
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ceilid = to hide, conceal, admit, allow, concede, withhold, hoard, suppress, destroy
ceilt = act of hiding, concealing, suppressing
cel = concealment, dissolution, extinction, death
celt = covering, garment, clothing
celtair = concealment, covering, garment, cloak
Irish (Gaeilge) ceil [kɛlʲ] = to conceal, suppress, withhold
ceileantas = concealment, secrecy
ceileatram = disguise, veneer
ceilt = concealment, withholding, denial
ceilteanas = concealment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceil [kʲel] = concealment, death (archaic)
ceileadh [kʲeləɣ] =(act of) concealing, hiding
ceilear [kʲelər] = concealer, someone who hides, screener
ceilt [kʲeldʲ] = concealment
ceilte [kʲeldʲə] = concealed, hidden
ceilteach [kʲeldʲəx] = concealing, reserved
Manx (Gaelg) keill = to hide
keiltyn = to coneal, cover (up), disguies, hide, shelter; concealment, dissimulation, suppression
keiltynys = camouflage, furtiveness, hiding
Proto-Brythonic *kelɨd =
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cêl, cel = hiding, concealment, shelter
kelv, kelu, kely = to hide, conceal
celadwy, keladwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
keledic = hidden, concealed, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) cêl [kɛːl/keːl] = hiding, concealment, shelter, bower, hidden, secret
celaf, celu [ˈkɛlɨ̞/ˈkeːli/ˈkɛli] = to hide, conceal, keep secret
celadwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
celdy = bower, arbour
celedig = hidden, concealed, secret, dissembled
celedigaeth = concealment, secrecy
celedd = secretiveness, caution
datgelaf, datgelu = to reveal, detect, blab, solve
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) celes, celys, kelys = to conceal, hide
Cornish (Kernewek) kel = hidden, secret
keles = to conceal, hide
keles ha kavos = hide-and-seek

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱéleti (to be covering, hiding), from *ḱel- (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for cell and church in Celtic languages, cell, cellar, clandestine, conceal, hall, hell, helmet and occult in English, and the name William [source].

Words such as Celt and Celtic, and their equivalents in other languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the French celtique (Celtic), Latin Celtae (the Celts) and the Greek Κελτοί (Keltoí) / Κέλται (Kéltai), which is what Herodotus called the Gauls. They might have originally meant something like ‘descendents of the hidden one (the underworld deity)’, and according to Julius Caesar, the Gauls claimed descent from an underworld god [source].

In Breton, kuzh means secret and confidential, and kuzhat means to hide. They are cognate with the Welsh words cudd (concealment, secrecy) and cuddio (to hide, conceal), and the Cornish words kudh (concealed, hidden, secret) and kudha (to conceal, hide). See the Celtiadur post Mysterious Secrets for more details.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Sure, Certainly

Words for sure, certain and related words in Celtic languages.

Sure, Certainly

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *derwos = firm (as an oak), oak
Old Irish (Goídelc) derb = sure, certain, fixed, certainty
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove
derbda = certain, fixed
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derb = sure, certain, fixed, determinate, reliable, genuine
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove, attest
derbda(e) = certain, fixed
Irish (Gaeilge) dearbh [ˈdʲaɾˠəvˠ] = sure, certain
dearbhaigh = to declare, affirm, confirm, attest, prove
dearbháil = to test, check
dearbhú = declaration, affirmation, attestation, confirmation
dearfa = attested, proved, sure, certain
dearfach = affrimative, positive
dearfacht = positiveness, certainty
deartháir = brother (“certain brother” from derb & bráthair [brother])
deirfiúr = sister (“certain sister” from derb & siur [sister])
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearbh [dʲɛrɛv] = ceratin, sure, positive
dearbh-aithne = identity, indentification
dearbhaich [dʲɛrɛvɪç] = prove, attest, verify, demonstrate
dearbhadh [dʲɛrɛvəɣ] = proving, attesting, verifying
dearbhachd [dʲɛrɛvəxg] = proof, experience, assurance
dearbhair [dʲɛrɛvɛrʲ] = affirmer, checker
dearbhte [dʲɛrɛvdʲə] = ascertained, confirmed, proved
dearbhach [dʲɛrɛvəx] = sure, affirmative, positive
dearbhachail [dʲɛrɛvəxal] = conclusive, decisive
Manx (Gaelg) jarroo = absolute, actual, even, explicit, express, identical, indubitable
jarrooagh = affirmative, categorical, confirmative, definitive, positive
jarrooid = positiveness
dy jarroo = actually
Old Welsh ceintiru = first cousin (male)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keuynderv, keuyndyru, keuynderw = first cousin (male)
cyfnitherw, kefnithderw, cyvnither = first cousin (female)
Welsh (Cymraeg) derw = sure, true (only appears in words below)
cefnder(w) = first cousin (male)
cyfnither(w) = first cousin (female)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) handeru = first cousin
Cornish (Kernewek) kenderow, keniterow = cousin
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quenderu = cousin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kenderv = cousin (male)
keniterv = cousin (female)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (steady, firm), from *dóru (tree), which possibly related to *deru-/*drew- (hard, firm, strong, solid) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for oak trees in Celtic languages, and tar, tree, trough and trim in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kengeti =to step
Old Irish (Goídelc) cingid [ˈkʲiŋʲɡʲiðʲ] = to step, proceed
do·cing = to advance, step forward
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cingid, cinnid, cinnit = to step, pace, proceed, go, overcome, surpass, excel, exceed
do-cing, to-cing = to step, stride forward, advance, come
Irish (Gaeilge) cinn [cəiɲ / ciːnʲ] = to fix, determine, decree, decide
cinnte = certain, definite, mean, stingy, constant
cinnteach = fixed, definite, definitive
cinnteachaí = determinist
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteacht = certainty, stinginess, limitation
cinntigh = to make certain, confirm, assure
cinntiú = confirmation, determination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cinnt [kʲĩːn̪ʲdʲ] = certainty
cinnteach = certain, definite, sure, accurate
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteachd = certainty, actuality, assurance
cinnteachadh = checking, confirming, determining
cinntich = (to) check, confirm, determine, ascertain
Manx (Gaelg) kinjagh = constant, continual, continuous, definite

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (limp) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for step in Celtic languages, shank in English, hinken (to limp, hobble) in Dutch and German [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyogel, diogel = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelu = to make save, secure
diogelhay = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd, diogelrỼyd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr = defender, protector
Welsh (Cymraeg) diogel [dɪˈɔɡɛl/dɪˈoːɡɛl] = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelaf, diogelu = to make save, secure, assure, confirm
diogeldeb, diolgelder = safety, security
diogelfa = safe place, fortress, stronghold, place of refuge
diogelhaf, diogelhau = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr, diogelydd = defender, protector
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diogel, dyowgel, dyogel, diûgel, diougel = unexposed, secure, safe, certain
Cornish (Kernewek) diogel = certain, reliable, secure, sure
diogeldeh = security
diogeli = to safeguard, secure
Middle Breton (Brezonec) diouguel, dioguel, dyougel = certain, sure, surely, security, safety
diouguelhat = to defend, guard, protect
diouguelroez, dyouguelroez = security, protection
Breton (Brezhoneg) diogel [diˈoːɡɛl] = size, dimension, measure, format
diougelaat = to defend, guard, protect
diougeladur = affirmation, assertion
diougeler = protecter
diogeliñ = to assert
diogelroez = security, protection
diogelus = affirmative

Etymology: from di- (intensifying prefix) and gogel (to guard), from Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (sub-, under) and *kelo (to hide), from PIE *ḱel (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include Celt(ic), heel and occult in English [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sicir [ʃiçgʲɪrʲ] = shrewd, acute, accurate, sure
sicireachd [ʃiçgʲɪrʲəxg] = shrewdness, acuteness, accurateness, sureness
Manx (Gaelg) shickyr = certain, confident, definite, firm
shickyraghey = to ensure, ratify, verify, affirmation
shickyrys = assurance, certainty, security, stability
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) sicr, sikr = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
sickrwydd, sicrwydd, siccrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siwr, sywr = sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
Welsh (Cymraeg) sicr [ˈsɪkɪr] = sure, certain, inevitable, secure, safe
sicrhau = to ensure, make certain, fasten, secure
sicrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siŵr, siwr [ʃuːr]= sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
siwr(i)af, siwr(i)o = to assure, ensure
siwrans, siwrens = certainity, assurance
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) secer = secure
secerder = security
Cornish (Kernewek) sur = certain(ly), sure(ly)
surhe = to assure, ensure, insure
surheans = insurance
surneth = certainity
surredi = certainly, surely
Middle Breton (Brezonec) sigur = sure, certain, assured
Breton (Brezhoneg) sygur, sigur [ˈsiːɡyr] = sure, certain, assured
siguriñ = to generalize, pretext

Etymology: from Middle English siker (safe, secure), from Old English sicor (secure, safe, sure), from Proto-West Germanic *sikur (secure, safe, sure, certain), from Latin sēcūrus (worryless; carefree; secure), from sē- (without) and cūra (care); [source].

Note: the Welsh word sikr comes from Middle English siker, while siŵr/siwr comes from modern English sure. They both come from the same ultimate roots. Similarly, the Middle Cornish secer comes from Middle English, while sur in modern Cornish comes from modern English. I’m not sure if the Breton words are related, or what their etymology is.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Size & Quantity

Words for size, amount, quantity and related things in Celtic languages.

Size & Quantity

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mantī = size, quantity
Old Irish (Goídelc) méit [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, extent, greatness, quantity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) méit, mét = greatness, magnitude
méite, méte, méide = size, amount, extent
Irish (Gaeilge) méid [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, quantity, extent, degree, number; size, magnitude
ainmhéid = hugeness, overgrowth
cóimhéid = equal size or amount
gearrmhéid = fair size
gháthmhéid = ordinary, average, size
lánmhéid = full size
meánmhéid = medium size
ollméid = great, size, hugeness, immensity
méadaigh = to increase, multiply, enlarge, augment
méadail = paunch, stomach
méadaíocht = grown state, increase, growth, self-importance, friendship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meud [miad] = size, largeness, amount, quantity, dimension
meudmhor = ample, sizeable
meudachd = dimension, bulk, greatness, magnitude, size, scale
meudachadh = increasing, expanding, augmenting
meudaichte = increased, expanded, augmented
làn-mheud = full size
mòr-mheud = great size
ro-mheud = excessive size / amount
Manx (Gaelg) mooad = amount, quantity
mooadys = amount, amplitude, augmentation, capacity, dimension
mooadagh = bulky, expansionist, large, sizeable
mooadaghey = aggravation, amplify, augment, develop, developing, enlarge
mooad-vaghteyr = quantity surveyor
Proto-Brythonic *mėnt = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) meint, meynt, mint = size, stature, amount
kymeint, kemeint, cymain = as great, as large, as big
meintholy, meynholy, meintoli = to specify an amount, measure
Welsh (Cymraeg) maint [mai̯nt] = size, dimension, magnitude, stature, amount, sum, number, quantity, the whole, all, as many, such
maintiol(i)aeth = size, dimension, measure, quantity
cymaint = as great, as large, as big, as many, as much
(pa) faint? = how many? how many?
meintiol = quantitative
mein(ti)olaf, meint(i)oli = to specify an amount, measure, quantify, value
meint(i)oliad = quantification
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mens, mŷns = magnitude, greatness, quantity
Cornish (Kernewek) myns, mens = amount, quantity, as many as
mynsek, mensek = considerable, sizeable
mynsonieth, mensonieth = geometry
Old Breton ment, mint =
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ment, mænt, men = size, dimension
Breton (Brezhoneg) ment [ˈmɛnt/ˈmẽnt] = size, dimension, measure, format
mentad = measure
mentadañ = to measure, format
mentadur = quantification
mentel [ˈmẽntɛl] = dimensional, quantitative

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *mh₁-nt-, from *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include immense, meal, measure, meter / metre, metronome and probably moon and month in English, vermaren (to make famous) and maal (meal, time, turn) in Dutch, and mærð (flattery, praise) in Icelandic [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Haughty Pride

Words for pride, arrogance, vanity and related things in Celtic languages.

Gay Pride

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *auberos = vain
Old Irish (Goídelc) úabar = pride, arrogance
úabrige = pride, arrogance
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úabar = pride, arrogance, vanity, confidence
úabrach = proud, haughty
úabrigidir = to treat insolently, profane, mock
óbar = vain-glory
anúabar, anuabhar = inordinate pride
comúabar = great pride
Irish (Gaeilge) uabhar = pride, arrogance, spiritedness, exuberance, frolicking, frolicsomeness, rankness, luxuriance, eeriness, feeling of loneliness
anuabhar = overweening pride, excess (of grief, weeping)
aingeal an uabhair = fallen angel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhar [uəvər̪] = pride, insolence
uabharra [uəvər̪ˠə] = proud, haughty
uaibhreach [uəivr̪ʲəx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
an-uaibhreach = humble
uaibhreas = arrogance, haughtiness
uaibhridh = haughty, proud, arrogant
ro sgrios thig uabhar = pride goes/comes before a fall
Proto-Brythonic *ọβer = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ofer, ouer = worthless, vain, useless
ofêra, ouera, ofera = to behave frivolously
overaidd = vain, frivolous
oferbeth, obherbeth = worthless or pointless thing
ofered, oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel, ofer-goel = superstition, vain belief
overwr, ouerwr, oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofer [ˈɔvɛr / ˈoːvɛr] = worthless, vain, useless, unnecessary, futile, wasteful, prodigal, unprofitable, frivolous
ofera(f) = to behave frivolously, live dissolutely, trifle, idle, laze, loiter, waste, squander
oferaidd = vain, frivolous, unprofitable, worthless
oferbeth = worthless or pointless thing, trifle, bauble
oferdod = vanity, dissipation, frivolousness
oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel = superstition, vain belief, false religion
oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) evereth, ufereth = vanity, idleness, frivolity
Cornish (Kernewek) euver = valueless, worthless
euvergryjyk = superstitious
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euver = bland, insipid, flavourless
Breton (Brezhoneg) euver = bland, spineless(ness), damage

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *aw- and *ber-o- (to carry), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to carry, bear, flow), *bʰer- (to bear, carry) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include beir (to bear, give birth to, lay, bring, take) in Irish, beir (to bear, give birth to) in Scottish Gaelic, behr (to bear, give birth to) in Manx, bairn (child) in Scots, and bear (to carry), bier, birth, burden, ferret, and fortune in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *balkos = strong
Gaulish balco- = strong (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) balc = robust, strong, sturdy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) balc, bailc = stout, strength, sturdy, firm, vigorous, powerful, strength, firmness, vigour
Irish (Gaeilge) bailc = strong, stout
bailcbhéim = strong, heavy, blow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bailc [balçgʲ] = strong, bold, daring
bailc uisge = sudden, heavy shower
bailceach [balçgʲəx] = stout/strong person
bailceata [balçgʲən̪ˠdə] = stout, strong, boastful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) balch, bỽlch, beilch = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave
balchav = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
bylchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
strong>ualchder, balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
ualchdet, balchet = pride, arrogance
Welsh (Cymraeg) balch [balχ] = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain, pompous
balchâf, balcháu = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
balchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
balchded = pride, arrogance
balchus = proud, vain
balchwedd = pride, conceit, lofty
belchyn = proud, pompous or self-important person, prig
Cornish (Kernewek) balgh = arrogant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) balc’h = haughty, proud, arrogant
Breton (Brezhoneg) balc’h [ˈbalx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
ambalc’h = reserved, timid
balc’haat = to make or become haughty
balc’hded = superb, arrogance
balc’hder = = pride, arrogance, audacity

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (to blow, swell, inflate). A word from the same Proto-Celtic root is balca (bulrush, cattail) in Catalan and Occitan [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bold in English, boud (bold, brave) in Dutch, and bald (soon, almost) in German [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrth [ɡʊrθχ] = opposition, objection, resistance, contast, opposite
gwrthâd = taunt, light censure, upbraiding, remorse, conviction
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goth = pride
gothus, gothys = proud
Cornish (Kernewek) gooth = pride
gothus = proud, arrogant
gorth = obstinate, perverse, stubborn, uppity
gorthus = proud

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) blad = fame, renown
bladach = famous, renowned, splendid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blad, bladh, blath = fame, renown, glories, triumphs
bladach, bladaig = famous, renowned, splendid
bladaigid = praises, extols
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth = pride
Manx (Gaelg) blaa = heyday, pride

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) borr = huge, large, proud, swollen, thick, vast
borrfadach = bold, high-spirited, proud
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) borr, bórr = big, large, great, vast, mighty, strong, puffed-up, proud
borrach = a proud, pretentious person
borra(i)d = swelling, maturing, blooming, springing, swells, becomes swollen, bloated
Irish (Gaeilge) borr = puffed (up with), proud, luxuriant; to swell, grow
borrach = proud, arrogant person; swollen, proud, arrogant
borrachas = pride, arrogance
borradh = swelling, growth, surge, expansion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòrr [bɔːr̪ˠ] = puffed up, swollen, grand, splendid, haughty
borrail = swaggering, boastful
borranachadh = swelling up, puffing up, frothing at the mouth
borraganta = swelling, fierce

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) sturd = pride, haughtiness; angry look, menacing look
styrdalys = stateliness
styrdalaght = pride, stateliness

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) moyrn = pomp, pride, self-conceit
moyrnagh = haughty, proud, vain, pompous
moyrnee = proud

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Rewarding Gifts

Words for prize and related things in Celtic languages.

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Proto-Celtic *uɸo-kʷrinati = reward (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fochraic [ˈfoxriɡʲ] = reward, recompense
terḟochraic, terfhochraic = buying, payment, reward
crenaid = to buy, sell
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fochraic, fochricc = reward, recompense, payment, fee, hire, rent, compensation
fochrach = a hireling, mercenary
fochricnet = a little reward
terḟochraic, terochraic, turfhochraic = reward, recompense, price, payment, present or payment made by a bridegroom to a bride or her relations
Irish (Gaeilge) fochraig = reward, stipend, fee
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwobr, gwobyr = reward, prize
gwobr-wŷr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gober, gobruy, gobrwy, gobyr = reward, payment, fee,
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwobr/gwobrwy [ˈɡwɔbr] =reward, prize, desert, recompense, benefit, gift, tip, fee, hire, bribe
gwobrwy = fee, fine
gwobraf, gwobri, gwobru, gwobro = to reward, recompense, compensate, bribe, corrupt
gwobrwr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gwobrwyad = a rewarding, remuneration, bribery
gwobrwyaf, gwobrwyo = to award a prize, reward, recompense, acknowledge
gobr/gobrwy = reward, payment, fee, wages, recompense, gift, merit, desert, bribe
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gober, gobar, gobyr = recompense, reward, fee, wagews, stipend, hire
goberna = to hire
Cornish (Kernewek) gober = earnings, income, pay, remuneration, reward, salary, wage
gober dilavur/diweythieth = unemployment benefit
gober ispoyntel = minimum wage
gober kleves = sick pay
gober omdednans = pension
gobra = to remunerate, reward
gobrena = to rent
gobrener, gorenores = tenant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gopr, gobr = wage, salary
gopra = to bet, wager
gopraer, gopraër = mercenary, tenant, lodger
gopraff, gôbret = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate
Breton (Brezhoneg) gopr = salary, wages, pay, fee
gopra = to bet, wager, pay, hire
goprad = salary
gopradenn = recompense
goprañ = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic from *uɸo (under) and *kʷrināti (to buy) [source]. Some words for to buy in Celtic languages come from the Proto-Celtic root *kʷrināti (to buy)

Proto-Celtic *dānus / *dānus = gift
Gaulish Danomaros = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) dán [daːn] = art, gift, poem, skill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dán = gift, bestowal, endowment, present, skill, poem, song, verse, rhyme
Irish (Gaeilge) dán [d̪ˠɑ̃ːn̪ˠ/d̪ˠaːn̪ˠ] = gift, offering, craft, calling, art, faculty, art of poetry, poem, lot, fate
dánaigh = to give, bestow
dánlann = art gallery
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dàn [daːn] = poem, song, work, effort
dàn-mòr = epic poem
dàn-molaidh = eulogy
dàn-liriceach = lyric
dàn-fhacal = epigram
dànach = poetic, metric
dànachd = poetry
Manx (Gaelg) daan = poem
daan mooar = epic
daan moyllee = hymn
Proto-Brythonic *dọn = gift, blessing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) daun, davn, dawn = gift, talent
dawnget, dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth, down-goeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnha = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
donnwy, donyer, donya = to endow, bless, give, present
donyauc, donyawc, doniog = gifted, endowed, talented
Welsh (Cymraeg) dawn [dau̯n] = faculty, intellectual gift, talent, genius, humour, wit, grace, benefit, blessing, favour, reward, present, donation
dawnaf, dawno = to fare, get on
dawnaidd = gifted, endowed with or showing ability
dawnedigaeth = gift, a giving or conferring, endowment, grace
dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnhaf, dawnhau = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
doniaf, donio = to endow, bless, give, present
doniog = gifted, endowed, talented, bountiful, liberal, fortunate, advantageous
doniol = gifted, talented, endowed, eloquent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) donaison, donaeson, donaezon = gift, talent, donation
donaesonaff = to donate
donaesonner, donaesoner = donor
Breton (Brezhoneg) donezon = gift, talent, donation
donezoner = donor
donezoniñ = to donate, present, reward, gratify

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃nom (gift), from *deh₃- (to give) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include date, donate, dose and vend in English, don (gift, talent, knack) in French, dom (talent) in Portuguese, and don (gift, present, talent, knack) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúas = reward, gift
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dúas, dúáis, duais = gift, reward (esp. a recompense give to poets)
dúasach = reward- or gift-bestowing, munificent, gift-bestower, rewarder
dúasad = act of benefiting, rewarding
frithdúas = a counter-reward, the payment made to the receiter
Irish (Gaeilge) duais = gift, reward, prize, stake, prize, prize-winning
duaisbhanna = prize-bond
duaiseach = bountiful, generous
duaiseoir = prizewinner
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) duais [duəʃ] = prize, bonus, reward, purse (in sports)
duais-bhrathaidh = bribe (reward for betrayal)
duais-roinn = dividend
duais-earrainn = dividend
duais-airgid = (monetary) prize
duais-barrachd = premium
duaiseachadh [duəʃəxəɣ] = awarding, gratifying, gratification
duaismhor duəʃ(v)ər] = liberal, bountiful

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- (to give) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Impeccable Peccadillos

Words for sin, fault, crime and related things in Celtic languages.

Somebody looks guilty.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kariyā = mistake, sin
Old Irish (Goídelc) caire [ˈkarʲe] = crime, fault, sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) caire, cair, coire = crime, fault, sin
cairech = criminal, guilty, sinful
cairigid = rebukes, accuses, blames
cairthech = criminal, guilty
Irish (Gaeilge) coir [kɛɾʲ/kɪɾʲ] = crime, offence; fault, transgression
coireach = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
coireacht = wickedness, guiltiness
coiriú = censure
coireolaí = criminologist
coiritheoir = accuser, incriminator
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = blame, fault, offence, wrong
coireach [kɤrʲəx] = culprit; guilty, to blame, faulty, responsible
coireachd [kɔrʲəxg] = culpability
Proto-Brythonic *kareð [kaˈrɛːð] = mistake, sin
Old Welsh cared = transgression, sin, crime
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cared, karet = transgression, sin, crime
karedus = sinful, evil
Welsh (Cymraeg) caredd [ˈkarɛð] = transgression, sin, crime, lust, love
careddus = sinful, evil
careddwr = accuser, evil-doer
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cara = to correct, chastise
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carez, garé = blame, reprimand
carez = to blame, accuse
Breton (Brezhoneg) karez = blame, incrimination
kareziñ = to blame, accuse

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂er- (blame, abuse). Words from the same PIE root include cārinō (I revile, blame, insult) in Latin, корить [kɐˈrʲitʲ] (to reproach, upbraid) in Russian, and коря [koˈrʲɤ̟] (to accuse, blame) in Bulgarian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) peccad = sin
pecthaigid = to sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) pec(c)ad = sin
pecthach = sinful, committing sin, sinner
pecthaigid, pec(c)aigid = sins. commits sin
Irish (Gaeilge) peaca [ˈpʲakə/ˈpʲaku] = sin
peacadh = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
peacach = sinner, sinful
peacaigh = to sin
peacúil = sinful
peacúlacht = sinfulness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) peaca [pɛxgə] = sin
peacadh, peacachadh [pɛxgəxəɣ] = sinning, sin, transgressing
peacail [pɛxgal] = sinful
peacach [pɛxgəx] = sinner
Manx (Gaelg) peccah = human being, sinner, sin, wickedness
peccagh = human, person, transgressor, sinner
peccoil = erring, sinful, unregenerate
Proto-Brythonic *pexọd [peˈxɔːd] = sin
*pexadʉr = sinner
*pexad [peˈxɔːd] = to sin, offend
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pechawt = sin
pechadur = sinner
pechu =to sin, offend
Welsh (Cymraeg) pechod [ˈpɛχɔd/ˈpeːχɔd] = sin
pechadur [pɛˈχadɨ̞r/pɛˈχaːdɪr] = sinner, offender
pechu [ˈpɛχɨ/ˈpeːχi] =to sin, offend
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pech, pêch, pechad, pechas = sin, offence, transgression
pecha, peché = to sin, transgress, offend
pechadur, pechadures = sinner, transgressor
Cornish (Kernewek) pegh = guilt, sin
pegha = to sin, offend
peghador, peghadores = sinner
peghes = sin
peghus = sinful
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pechet = blame
pechiff =to sin, offend
pechezr = sinner
Breton (Brezhoneg) pec’hed = sin
pec’hiñ = to sin, offend
pec’her = sinner

Etymology: from Latin peccātum (sin), from peccō (I sin, offend), from Proto-Italic *petkāō (I sin), from Proto-Indo-European verbal root *ped- (“to walk, fall, stumble”) [source].

Words from the same roots include peccadillo, impeccable, foot, pedal, pedestrian, and pew in English, pécher (to sin) in French, pecar (to sin) in Spanish [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

With and Without

Words for with, without, by and related things in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The emphatic forms of this word combined with personal pronouns are shown after the /.

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
Old Irish (Goídelc) la [la] = with, beside, by, belonging to, among; in the language of, in the opinion of
lem(m), lim(m), leim, lium(m) / lemsa, li(u)msa = with me
lat(t) / latso, latsu = with you (sg)
leiss, les(s), lais(s), letha / le(i)som, laisem = with him
l(a)ee, lǽ / lési = with her
li(u)nn, le(i)nn, linn(a)i = with us
lib / libsi = with you (pl)
leu, léu leo, lethu / leusom, leosom = with them
lam = with my
lat = with your (sg)
lia = with his/hers/its/their
liar = with our
lassa = with, which
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) la = beside, by, touching, along with, in the same direction as, following to course of, in the company of
lem(m), lim(m), lium = with me
lat(t), let = with you (sg)
leiss, less, les = with him
lee, laee, lea = with her
lenn, leinn, linn = with us
lib = with you (pl)
leu, leo = with them
Irish (Gaeilge) le [lʲɛ] = with, to, for, by, against, in proximity to, in contact with, beside, towards, facing, open to, along the face of, in company with, at, against
liom / liomsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leis-sean = with him
léi / léise = with her
linn / linne = with us
libh / libhse = with you (pl)
leo / leosan = with them
le mo, lem = with my
le do, led = with your (sg)
lena = with his/hers/its
lenár = with our
lena = with their
le haghaidh = for, near, in store for
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) le [le] = with, by, using, in possession of, in favour of, downhill, downstream, lee(ward), port(side)
leam / leamsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leissan = with him
leatha / leathase = with her
leinn / leinne = with us
leibh / libhse = with you (pl/frm)
leotha / leothasan = with them
Manx (Gaelg) lesh [lɛʃ] = for, with, toward
lhiam / lhiams = with me
lhiat / lhiats = with you (sg)
lesh / leshsyn = with him
lhee / lheeish = with her
lhien / lhienyn = with us
lhiu / lhiuish = with you (pl)
lhieu / lhieusyn = with them

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *letos (side), which is possibly related to *ɸletos (side) [source].

Words for half, side, wide, broad and related things in Celtic languages possibly come from the same roots [more details].

Proto-Celtic *writu = against
*writbero = to come against, return
*writkomfarsko- = to ask
*writtongo = to renounce
Old Irish (Goídelc) fri [fʲrʲi] = towards, against, along, beside, close to, on the point of
frimm, frium(m) / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friut(t) / fritso, fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom, frissium = against him
frie = against her
frinn / finn(a)i = against us
frib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fri = towards, facing, turned to, against, alongside, by, next to, at, in contact with
frim(m), frium / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friutt / fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom = against him
frie, friae / frise = against her
fri(u)nn, frind / finn(a)i = against us
frib, frithib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Irish (Gaeilge) re [rˠeː] = with, to, for, by, against (archaic, le is used instead)
fara [ˈfˠaɾˠə] = along, with, beside, in addition to (rare, used in Munster)
frae, fré [fˠɾˠeː] = with, along with (used in Connacht)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ri [rʲi] = against, busy with, engaged in, to, than
ruim/ ruimsa = against me
ruit / riutsa = against you (sg)
ris / ris-san = against him
rithe / rithese = against her
rinn / rinne = against us
ribh / ribhse = against you (pl)
riutha / riuthasan = against them
Manx (Gaelg) rish [rɪʃ] = along, beside, by, during, for
rhym / rhyms = to me
rhyt / rhyts = to you (sg)
rish / rishyn = to him
r’ee / r’eeish = to her
rooin / rooinyn = to us
riu / riuish = to you (pl)
roo / roosyn = to them
Old Welsh gurth = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wrth, vrth, Ỽrth = by, at, near
Welsh (Cymraeg) (g)wrth [(g)ʊrθ / (g)ʊθ] = by, at, near, close to, opposite, facing, in contact with, on, against, also, with, beside, because of, as a result of, about, concerning
wrth angen = according to need, as necessary
wrth angor = at anchor
wrth fron = near, close to, at the point of, almost
wrth law, wrth y llaw = nearby, at hand, by hand
wrth fynd heibio = in passing (of comment)
wrth ben = on top of, above, over
Old Cornish gurth = by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) (w)orth = at, by, to, for, with
(w)orthyf of/from/to/against me
(w)orthys = of/from/to/against thee
(w)orto = by/upon him or it
(w)orty = by/upon her or it
(w)orthyn = of/from/to/against us
(w)ortheuch = of/from/to you
orte, worté = by/upon them
Cornish (Kernewek) orth = against, at
orth ow brys = in my opinion
orth bodh ow brys = intentionally
orth niver = in number
Middle Breton (Brezonec) oz, ouz, ouc’h, oud = against, to, of, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) ouzh [us] = towards, to, against
ouzh beg = below, at the bottom (of)
diouzh [ˈdiːus/ˈdjuːs] = of, according to
diouzh re = in case of need, if necessary
diouzhtu [djusˈtyː] = immediately

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wert- (to turn) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include divert, invert, pervert, verse, verus, vortex and worth [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanta = together with
*kantyos = assembly, gathering
Gaulish *kantyos = assembly, gathering
cantio = assembly, gathering
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét- = with
céite = assembly, hill, mound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cét- = with
céite = hill, mound, open space, racecourse, meeting-place, assembly, square, market-place
Old Welsh cant = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) can, cann, gen, gant, gan = with, together with
genhyf = with me
genhyt = with thee
gant(h)aw = with him or it
gent(h)i = with her or it
genhym, genhyn, gennyn = with us
genhwch, gennwch = with you
gantu(d), gantunt, ganthud = with them
gid, y gyd, kyd, gyt = with, together with
Welsh (Cymraeg) gan [ɡan] = with, together with, alongside, beside, by (means of), through, because of, on account of, from , of
gyda = with, together with, in addition to, in the company of, close by, next to, alongside, besides, for
Old Cornish cant, cans = with, by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gan, gans = with, by
genef, gynef = with me
genes, gynes = with thee
ganso = with him or it
gynsy = with her or it
genen, gynen = with us
geneuch = with you
gansé = with them
Cornish (Kernewek) gans = by, with
gans ganow = by word of mouth
gans golow, gans tan = alight, lit
gans henna = thereby
gans oll ow holon vy = sincerely yours
gans pub bolonjedh da = with all good wishes
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gant = with, on the occasion of, so much
Breton (Brezhoneg) gant [ˈɡãnt] = with, because of
digant = with, of

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

Proto-Celtic *sekʷo- = besides, without
Old Irish (Goídelc) sech [sʲex] = past, beyond, different from, more than
sechum = different from me
sechut = different from you (sg)
sech(a)e, sechæ = different from him
secce = different from her
sechund = different from us
seccu = different from them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sech = past, beyond, different from, more than,
sechum, seacham , seocham = different from me
sechut, seachad, seochad = different from you (sg)
(se)chae, secha, sechai = different from him
seochu, seacha = different from him
secci, seicce, seice = different from her
sechund, sechoind, seachoinn = different from us
sechaib = different from you (pl)
seccu, seocu, seoca = different from them
Irish (Gaeilge) seach [ʃax] = by, past, beyond, other than, more than
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seach [ʃɛx] = compared with/to, in preference to, past, by, rather than
seach-rathad = bypass, relief road, byway
seach-thìm = overtime
Manx (Gaelg) shagh [ʃax] = past
shaghey = bye, bygone, past, delay, prolong, neglected
shiaghey = past
shagh-votal = proxy vote
shagh-chlou = offprint
shagh-teiyder = proxy
Proto-Brythonic *heb = besides, without
Old Welsh hep = without
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heb, hep = without, past
hebof, hebofy = without me
hebot = without thee
hebddaw = without him or it
hebddi, hebdi, hebti = without her or it
hebom, heibom = without us
heboch = without you
hebddudd = without them
heb law, hebillaw, heb-law = besides, not counting
eb vn ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annot = without delay, immediately
Welsh (Cymraeg) heb [hɛb/heːb] = without, minus, free from, void of, lacking, in the absence of, past, besides, in addition to, not including, excluding, apart from,
heblaw = besides, not counting, over and above, in addition to, except, but, without, past
heb ei ail, heb (un) ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annod = without delay, immediately
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) heb, hep = without, destitute, void of
hebford = without a road
Cornish (Kernewek) heb = witout
heb ahwer = readily
heb bri = irrelevant
heb danjer = safely
heb difuna = dormant
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
Old Breton ep = without
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hep, hemp, eb = without
hep quen, ep quen, hemb kin, epken = only
hep muy, hep-mui = without further …, only
hep muy quen, hep mui quen = only
Breton (Brezhoneg) hep [hep] = without
hepken = only, exclusiveness
hepmuiken = without further …

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to follow) or from *sek- (to cut) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include sect, sign, signal, social, sue, suit, suite [source].

Proto-Celtic *kina = on this side of
Old Irish (Goídelc) cen [kʲen] = except, without, unbeknownst to, unknown to
cene, cenae [ˈkʲene] = besides, in any case, already
olchene, olchenae [olˈxʲene] = besides, the other(s), the rest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cen, cin, can, gen, gin, gan = on this side of, apart from, besides, except, without, -less
Irish (Gaeilge) gan [ɡən̪ˠ/ɡan̪ˠ] = without, not
gan amhras = undoubtedly
gan fáth gan ábhar = for no reason whatever
gan fhios = unknown, secretly
gan on = faultless, unblemished
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gun [ɡən̪ˠ] = without, not
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
gun fhiù = worthless, trashy, trivial
gun iarraidh = unwanted, unbidden, unsought
gun mhaille = forthwith
gun sgot = clueless
Manx (Gaelg) gyn = ex, un-, devoid, without
gyn baare = pointless
gyn bun = baseless, bogus, unfounded
gyn currym = carefree, unencumbered
gyn ennym = anonymous, nameless, unnamed
gyn feill = vegetarian
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quen, quin, gen, ken = no more, other
Breton (Brezhoneg) ken [ˈkɛnː] = other, only, no more

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe (this, here) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boats and Ships

Words for boat, ship and related vessels in Celtic languages.

Douglas / Doolish

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *longā- = boat, vessel
Old Irish (Goídelc) long [l͈oŋɡ] = boat, ship
longfort = camp, encampment, stronghold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) long, longa = boat, ship, vessel, long-ship, galley; vessel, container; house; bed
longphort, lonngport = camp, encampment, temporary stronghold, mansion, princely dwelling; stronghold, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) long [l̪ˠɔŋ] = ship, vessel, container, house
longbhá = shipwreck
longbhac = embargo (on ships), naval blockade
longbhoth = (navel) dock
longbhriste = shipwrecked
longcheárta, longchlós = shipyard
longfort = camp, stronghold, fortified residence
longlann = dockyard
longmhar = abounding in ships
longtheach = boat-house
longthógáil = shipbuilding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) long [l̪ˠɔuŋg] = ship
longas = shipping, shipment
longart = seaport
long-adhair = airship
long-bhriste = shipwreck
long-chasgadh = embargo
long-fhada = galley (ship)
long-fhànais = spaceship
long-lann = dockyard
long-phort = seaport
long-thogail = shipbuilding
Manx (Gaelg) lhong [loŋ] = ship, vessel
lhong aer = airship
lhong-chaardee = boatyard, shipyard
lhong chrowal = hovercraft
lhong liauyr = longship
lhong-phurt = basin, seaport
lhong spoar = spaceship
lhong spooillee = pirate ship
lhuingys = fleet, shipping
Proto-Brythonic *llong = ship, vessel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) loggou, log, llogeu, llong = ship, boat
llongi = to embark, ship
llongeidiev, llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llog porth, llogborth, llong-borth = seaport, haven, harbour
long-dorr = shipwreck
longhawl, llonghavl. llongawl = nautical, maritime, naval
llongỼyr, llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
Welsh (Cymraeg) llong [ɬɔŋ] = ship, boat; the Great Bear (Ursa Major)
llongaf, llongi = to embark, ship
llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llongborth = seaport, harbour, dock, quay
llongdor = shipwreck
llongol = nautical, maritime, naval
llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
llong awyr = airship, aeroplane
llong y diffeithwch, llong dir = ship of the desert, camel
llong ofod = spaceship, spacecraft
llong hofran = hovercraft
llong danfor(ol) = submarine
Old Breton locou = ship, boat

Etymology: possibly from the Latin (navis) longa ([long] boat), or from an unknown source [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nāwā- = boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) nau, nó = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) nó, noe = boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars)
Irish (Gaeilge) nae [n̪ˠeː] = boat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noe = large vase, bowl
Welsh (Cymraeg) noe = (wooden) vessel used in making butter, kneading dough, etc. shallow dish, bowl, pan, basin, laver, wooden trough
noeaid = dishful
Cornish (Kernewek) new = sink, trough, washbasin
new doos = trough
new-droghya = sheep dip
Middle Breton (Brezonec) néau, néff, neo, nev = trough, bucket
néay-doas, neo-doaz, nev-doaz = kneading-trough
Breton (Brezhoneg) nev = trough, bucket

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *néh₂us (boat), from *(s)neh₂- (to swim) [Source]. Words from the same roots include navy, navigate, andnautical in English [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelic) bát = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bát, bád = boat
Irish (Gaeilge) bád [bˠɑːd̪ˠ/bˠaːd̪ˠ] = boat
bádóireacht = (act of) boating
bád iascaigh = fishing boat
bád seoil = sailing boat
bád tarrthála = lifeboat
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàta [baːhdə] = boat, craft
bàtaireachd = boating
bàta-aigeil = submarine
bàta-asieig = ferry boat
bàta-falbhain = hovercraft
bàta-iasgaich = fishing boat
bàta-sàbhalaidh = lifeboat
bàta-siùil = sailing boat
Manx (Gaelg) baatey [ˈbɛːðə] = boat, even keel
baateyrys = boating
baatey assaig = ferry boat
baatey bieauid = speedboat
baatey eeastee = fishing boat
baatey etlagh = seaplane
baatey sauaillagh = lifeboat
baatey
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bat, bad = boat
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
Welsh (Cymraeg) bad = boat, barge, (small) ship
badaid = boatful
badlong = ketch, pinnace
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
bad acbub = lifeboat
bad pysgota = fishing boat

Etymology: from Old English bāt (boat) or from Old Norse bátr (boat), both of which come from Proto-Germanic *baitaz (boat, ship), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to break, split) [Source].

The English word boat comes from the same roots, as do words for boat in many other languages [Source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scaf, scaffu, scafa = ship
Irish (Gaeilge) scafa [sˠkɑfˠə] = ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgoth [sgɔh] = skiff
sgothag = little skiff, small yacht, cutter
sgiof [sgʲif] = skiff (boat)
sgib [sgʲib] = small ship (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) skiff = skiff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgraff, yscraff, ysgraff = boat, barge, ferry
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgraff, sgraff = boat, barge, skiff, ferry, ship, raft
ysgraffbont = pontoon
ysgraffwr, ysgraffydd = ferryman, boatman, bargee
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scath = boat
scath hîr = long boat
Cornish (Kernewek) skath = boat
skathik = dinghy
skath hir = barge
skath kloos = raft
skath tan = motor-boat
skath sawya = lifeboat
skath-wolya = sailing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scaph, scaff, sqaff, skaf = skiff
skavat, skafad = contents of a skiff
Breton (Brezhoneg) skaf = skiff, landing net

Etymology: possibly from Latin scapha (a light boat, skiff), from Ancient Greek σκάφη (skáphē – light boat, skiff), from σκᾰ́πτω (skáptō – to dig, delve); or from Old Norse skúta (small craft, cutter) [Source].

Proto-Celtic *lestrom = vessel, pot
Old Irish (Goídelic) lestar = vessel, container, beehive
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lestar = vessel, container, beehive, ship, boat
lestarach = frequented by ships
Irish (Gaeilge) leastar [ˈl̠ʲasˠt̪ˠəɾˠ] = vessel, container (for liquids), cask, firkin, (wash) tub, punt (boat), tub; squat, dumpy person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leastar = small boat, cup, vessel, furniture of a house
Proto-Brythonic *llestr = vessel, container
Old Welsh lestir = vessel, container
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llestri, llestyr = vessel, container
llestreit, llestraid, llestred = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestryn, llestrun = small vessel, small barrel, boat
Welsh (Cymraeg) llestr [ɬɛstr/ˈɬɛstɛr] = vessel, bushel, ship, boat, beehive, womb, uterus
llestraid = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestrwr = maker of vessels, potter
llestryn = small vessel, small barrel, boat, human body
Old Cornish lester = vessel, container
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lester = vessel, ship
golowlester = a light-vessel, a lamp
Cornish (Kernewek) lester = dish, ship, utensil vessel
lester eth = steam boat
lester-bargesi = hovercraft
lester=gwari = yacht
lester-sedhi = submarine
annedh lester = houseboat
lestrier = (kitchen) dresser
lestriva = dockyard
lestryn = container
Old Breton lestr = ship, vessel, container
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lestr = ship, vessel, container
lestr-dre-dan = steamship
lestr-kroazer, lestr-reder = cruiser
Breton (Brezhoneg) lestr [ˈlɛstʁ] = vessel, container, ship
lestr-spluj[lɛs.ˈplyːʃ] = submarine
aerlestr [ˈɛʁlestʁ] = aircraft
lestrañ [ˈlɛstrã] = to board, load (a vehicle)
dilestrañ [diˈlɛsːtrã] = to disemark

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ- (to fold, weave). The Goidelic words were possibly borrowed from Proto-Brythonic [Source].

Kogge

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwch, cŵch = boat, beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwch [kʊχ] = boat, beehive
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) coc = boat
Cornish (Kernewek) kok = fishing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) couc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
kouc’hañ = to cover (a beehive)

Etymology: possibly cognate with the English word cog (a clinker-built, flat-bottomed, square-rigged mediaeval ship of burden, or war with a round, bulky hull and a single mast; a small fishing boat), which comes from Middle Dutch cogghe (clinker-built, flat-bottomed sailing cargo ship of the Middle Ages), from Proto-Germanic *kuggō, from PIE *gugā (hump, ball) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse dictionary

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