Twenty

Words for twenty and related things in Celtic languages:

twenty

Proto-Celtic *wikantī = twenty
Gaulish uoconti = twenty
Old Irish (Goídelc) fiche [ˈfʲixʲe] = twenty
fichetmad = twentieth
fichtige = twenty day/year period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fiche, fichet, fichit, fichtea = twenty, a score
fichetmad, fichatmath, fichetmudh = twentieth
fichetech = pertaining to twenty
fichtige = a period of twenty (days, years, etc)
Irish (Gaeilge) fiche [ˈfʲɪhə/ˈfʲɪçə/fʲiː] = twenty
(an) fichiú = twentieth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fichead [fiçəd] = twenty, a score
ficheadamh [fiçədəv] (20ᵐʰ) = twentieth (20ᵗʰ)
fichead-shliosnach = icosahedron (a polyhedron with 20 faces)
fichead-fillte = twentyfold
Manx (Gaelg) feed [fiːdʒ] = twenty, a score
feedoo, (yn) eedoo = (the) twentieth
feed cheead = two thousand (twenty hundred)
Proto-Brythonic *ʉgėnt = twenty
Cumbric giggy, jiggit = twenty
Old Welsh uceint = twenty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ugein, ugeint, vgein = twenty
vgeinvet, ugeinuet = twentieth
ugeinwyr, vgainwyr, vgain-wr, vgain-ŵr = twenty men
Welsh (Cymraeg) ugain [ˈɪɡai̯n/ˈiːɡai̯n] = twenty, score, twenty-pound note
ugeinfed [ɪˈɡei̯nvɛd] (20fed) = twentieth
ugeiniol = pertaining to twenty, denoting twenty
ugeinw(y)r = twenty men
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ugans, hugens = twenty, a score
Cornish (Kernewek) ugens, ugans = twenty
ugensves = twentieth
Old Breton ucent = twenty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) vgent, uiguent, ugent = twenty
ugentved = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty
ugentvedenni, ugentvedenna = to divide by twenty
ugentveder = a commemoration of 20 years
ugentvederel = vigesimal (20-base numeral system)
Breton (Brezhoneg) ugent [ˈyːɡẽn(t)] = twenty
ugentvet = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti (twenty) from *wídḱm̥ti (twenty) [source].

Words from the same roots include بیست‎ (bist – twenty) in Persian (Farsi), बीस (bīs – twenty) in Hindi and Nepali, বিশ (biś – twenty) in Bengali and વીસ (vīs – twenty) in Gujarati, and words for twenty in some other Indo-European languages languages [source].

Incidentally, the English words twenty, and words for twenty in other Germanic languages, are not cognate. Instead they come from the Proto-Germanic roots *twain- (two) ‎and *-tigaz (group of ten) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Spears and Javelins

Words for spear, javelin and related things in Celtic languages:

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Proto-Celtic *gaisos = spear
Gaulish *gaisos = spear
*Ariogaisos = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) gae [ɡai̯] = javelin, spear, penis
gae cró = gush of blood, haemorrhage, unhealed wound
gae gréne = sunbeam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gae, ga = spear, javelin; ray, beam
ga-ín = little javelin
gaíde = armed with a spear
Irish (Gaeilge) ga [ɡa/ɡaː/ɡah] = spear, dart, sting, ray (of light), radius, suppository, (fishing) gaff
ga-chatóideach = cathode ray
ga-gréine = sunbeam
ga-gealaí = moonbeam
ga-shiméadracht = radial symmetry
gáma-gha = gamma ray
X-gha = X-ray
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gath [ɡah] = dart, beam, ray (of light), sting, barb, knot (in wood), shooting pain, sprout
gath-gealaich, gath-luain = moonbeam
gath-grèine = sunbeam
gath-leusair = laser beam
gath-x, gath-òmair = X-ray
gath cathod = cathode ray
gath-solais = ray of light, light beam
Manx (Gaelg) goull = beam, dart, ray
goull eayst = moonbeam
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guaew, gvoev, gwaew, gwayw = lance, spear, javelin
gwaewdwnn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwaew ffon, gwaiw ffon = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwayw [ɡweɨ̯.ʊ/ˈɡwei̯.u] = lance, spear, javelin; shooting pain, stab, stitch, pang
gwaywawr, gwaywor = spearman, lancer, pikeman
gwaywdwn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwayw-fwyell = halberd
gwaywffon [ˈɡweɨ̯wfɔn/ˈɡwei̯wfɔn] = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Old Cornish (hoch-)wuyu = spear
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guw = spear. lance, javelin
Cornish (Kernewek) guw = spear
guwa = to spear
Old Breton (guu)goiou = spear
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goaff, goaf, goao, gwaf = spear, stamen, boat hook
Breton (Brezhoneg) goaf = spear, pike, javelin, stamen

Etymology: from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz [ˈɣɑi̯.zɑz] (spear, pike, javelin), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰoysós (throwing spear), from *ǵʰey- (to throw, impel) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gezi [ɡe̞.s̻i] (arrow) in Basque (via Latin and Gaulish), գայիսոն [ɡɑjiˈsɔn/kʰɑjiˈsɔn] (sceptre) in Armenian (via Ancient Greek), gaesum (a Gaulish javelin) in Latin, and γαῖσος [ɡâi̯.sos] (a Gaulish javelin) in Ancient Greek [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include garfish (any fish of the needlefish family Belonidae) in English [source], geer (spear) in Dutch, Ger (spear) in German, geir (spear) in Icelandic, keihäs (spear, javelin, pike) in Finnish, [source].

My surname, Ager, possibly comes from the same Proto-Germanic root as well, via the Old English name Ēadgār, from ēad (happiness, prosperity), and gār (spear) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Decades

Words for ten and related things in Celtic languages:

ten

Proto-Celtic *dekam = ten
*dekametos = tenth
Celtiberian tekametam = tenth
Gaulish decan = ten
decametos = tenth
Old Irish (Goídelc) deich [dʲexʲ] = ten
dechmad = tenth, ten days
deichenbor = ten people
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) deich, dech = ten
dechmad, deachmadh = tenth, ten days
deichenbor, dechnabar, dechnebur = ten people
deichenborach = belonging to a company of ten
deichthriub = The Ten Tribes of Israel
Irish (Gaeilge) deich [dʲɛç/dʲɛh/dʲɛ] = ten
(an) deichiú = tenth, tenth part
deichniúr = ten people
deichbhliantúil = decennial (consisting of or lasting 10 years; occuring every 10 years)
deachú = tenth part, tithe
deachúil = decimal
deachúlaigh = to decimalize
deachúlú = decimalization
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) deich [dʲeç] = ten
deicheamh [dʲeçəv] (10ᵐʰ) = tenth (10ᵗʰ)
deichnear [dʲeçnər] = ten (people)
deich ar fhichead = thirty
Na Deich Àitheantan = The Ten Commandments
deichead [dʲeçəd] = decade, decimal
deicheachadh = (act of) decimalising, decimalisation
deich-fillte = tenfold
Manx (Gaelg) jeih [d͡ʒɛi] = ten
(yn) jeihoo = (the) tenth
jeihaght = decade, ten
jeih keead = thousand
jeih filley = ten-fold
Jeih Annaghyn = Ten Commandments
Proto-Brythonic *deg [dɛːɡ] = ten
*degβ̃ed [dɛɡˈβ̃ɛːd] = tenth
Cumbric dig, dick, dik = ten
Old Welsh dec = ten
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dec = ten
decuet, decvet, decfed = tenth
decuettyd = tenth day
dec a hugein(t) = thirty
dec a dugein(t) = fifty
dec a phedwar ugein(t) = ninety
degeir = the Ten Commandments, Decalogue
degniev = ten days
deguyr, degwyr = ten men
Welsh (Cymraeg) deg [deːɡ] = ten
degfed [ˈdɛɡvɛd/ˈdɛɡvad] (10fed) = tenth
degfetydd = tenth day
deg ar hugain = thirty
deg a thrigain = seventy
deg a phedwar ugain = ninety
dega(w)d = decade
degiad = decimal
degoes = ten ages or lifetimes, prolonged life
degol = decimal, metric, tenth part
degolaf, degoli = to decimalize; decimate, tithe
degoliad = decimalization, decmiation, a tithing
dengair = the Ten Commandments, Decalogue
dengnïau = ten days
dengnyn, dengw(y)r = ten men, ten persons
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dec, dék, dég = ten
dege, degves = tenth
dek warn-ugens, dék war-nugens, degwarnygnas = thirty
deg ha dugans = fifty
Cornish (Kernewek) deg = ten
degves = tenth
deg warn ugens = thirty
deg ha dew ugens = fifty
deg ha tri ugens = seventy
deg ha peswar ugens = ninety
degowek, degoweges = teenage, teenager
degvledhen = decade
Old Breton dec = ten
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dec, dêc, deg, dégeu, dek = ten
decuet, dekved = tenth
dec ha triuguent, dec ha tri vguent = seventy
dec ha peuaruguent = ninety
dek kant, dec-cant, dek-kant = thousand
Breton (Brezhoneg) dek = ten
dekvet = tenth
dek ha tri-ugent = seventy
dek ha pevar-ugent = ninety
Dekalog = Decalogue, the Ten Commandments

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̥ (ten) and *deḱm̥tós (tenth) [source].

English words from the same roots include ten, decade, decimal and decathlon [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Nine

Words for nine and related things in Celtic languages:

nine

Proto-Celtic *nowan = nine
*naumetos = ninth
Gaulish *nau = nine
nametos = ninth
Old Irish (Goídelc) noí [n͈oːi̯] = nine
nómad = ninth
nónbor = nine people
noínden = nine days
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) noí, noi = nine
nómad, nomad = ninth
nónbor = nine people
noínden = nine days
noíchtige = a period of 29 days
nócha, nocha, nochat = ninety
Irish (Gaeilge) naoi [n̪ˠiː/n̪ˠɰiː] = nine
(an) naoú = ninth
naonúr = nine people
naoi déag = nineteen
nócha = ninety
naoichodach = ninefold, having nine parts
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) naoi(dh) [n̪ˠɯj] = nine
naodh [n̪ˠɯːɣ] = nine
naoitheamh [n̪ˠɤjəv] (9ᵐʰ) = ninth (9ᵗʰ)
naoinear [n̪ˠɯːn̪ʲər] = nine (people)
naoi deug = nineteen
naochad [n̪ˠɯːxəd] = ninety
naoidh-fillte = nonuple, ninefold, nine-ply
Manx (Gaelg) nuy [nɛi/niː] = nine
(yn) nuyoo = (the) ninth
nuy jeig = nineteen
nuy-cheayrtyn, nuy-filley = ninefold
nuy-uillinagh = nonagonal, nonagon
Proto-Brythonic *naw [n͈oːi̯] = nine
*nọβ̃ed = ninth
Old Welsh naw = nine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nav, nau, naw = nine
navuet, nauuet, nawued, nawuet = ninth
naw deg, naw-deg = ninety
nawkan, naw cant, nawcant = nine hundred, many, numerous
naw ugein(t) = 180
nawbann, nowban = (having) nine syllables (in Welsh poetry)
nawwell, nawell = nine times better (than), much better
naun, nawn, naon = the ninth hour of the day
naw nyn, nawnyn = nine men
Welsh (Cymraeg) naw [naːu̯/nau̯] = nine
nawfed [ˈnau̯vɛd/ˈnau̯vad] (9fed) = ninth, one of nine, nones (in Roman calendar)
deunaw = eighteen (two nines)
naw deg = ninety
nawcant = nine hundred, many, numerous
nawban, naw ban = (having) nine syllables (in Welsh poetry)
nawell = nine times better (than), much better
nawn = the ninth hour of the day (approx. 3pm) midday, nooon, afternoon
nawnbryd = evening meal, dinner, supper
nawnyn, naw nyn = nine men
nawplyg = ninefold
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) naw = nine
nawnzac, nawntek, nownsec, nowndzhak = nineteen
naiv cans = nine hundred
Cornish (Kernewek) naw = nine
nawves = ninth
nownsek = nineteen
nowsegves = nineteenth
Old Breton nau = nine
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nau, nao, naou, naff, nauë, naü = nine
navet = ninth
nauntec, nantec, nandec = nineteen
naontecvet, nandecvèd, naontekved, naoñteget = nineteenth
nao ugent = 180
Breton (Brezhoneg) nav [ˈnaw] = nine
navet = ninth
naontek = nineteen

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₁néwn̥ (nine) and *h₁newn̥nós (ninth) [source].

English words from the same roots include nine, and words beginning with ennea-, such as enneagon (a 9-sided polygon) and enneastyle (having 9 columns) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Eightsome

Words for eight and related things in Celtic languages:

eight

Proto-Celtic *oxtū = eight
*oxtūmetos = eighth
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocht [ˈoxt] = eight
ochtmad [ˈoxtṽað] = eighth
ochtar = a group of eight people
ochtmoga = eighty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocht = eight
ochtmad = eighth
ochtur, ochtor, ochtar = eight people/things
ochta = a group of eight things, an octad
ochtmoga, ochtmogo, ochtmogat = eighty
Irish (Gaeilge) ocht [ɔxt̪ˠ/ʌxt̪ˠ]= eight
ochtar = eight (people)
ochtú = eighth, eighth part
ocht déag = eighteen
ochtó = eighty
ochtddach = having eight parts, eightfold
ochtábhó = octavo
ochtach, ochtáibh = octave
ochtagán = octagon
ochtapas = octopus
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ochd [ɔxg] = eight
ochdamh [ɔxgəv] (8ᵐʰ) = eighth (8ᵗʰ)
ochdnar [ɔxgnər] = eight people
ochd-fillte = octuple, eightfold, eight-ply
ochd-shliosach = octagon, octahedron
ochd-chasach = octopus
Manx (Gaelg) hoght [hoːx(t)] = eight, octuple
hoghtoo = eighth
hoght jeig = eighteen
hoghtad = eighty
hoght filley, hoght keayrtyn = eightfold
oght-lhiatteeane, hoghtin = octagon
hoght lhiatteeagh = octagonal
hoght-choshagh = octopus
Gaulish oxtu = eight
oxtumetos = eighth
Proto-Brythonic *üiθ [yɨ̯θ] = eight
*üɨθβ̃ed = eighth
Cumbric owera, hovera, haoves = eight
Old Welsh oith = eight
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uith, wyth, vyth, ỽyth, oeth [sei̯θ] = eight
wythuet, wythued, ỽythuet = eighth
wythnos, vythnos, ỽythnos = week
petheunos, pytheonos, pethawnos = fortnight (two weeks)
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyth [uːɨ̯θ/ʊi̯θ] = eight, octave,
wythfed (8fed) [ˈʊɨ̯θvɛd/ˈʊi̯θvɛd] = eighth, one of eight
wyth deg = eighty
wythdegai = eighties
wythawd = octet, octave
wythblyg = octavo, eightfold, having eight parts
wythnyn = eight persons, eight men
wythochr = octahedron, octagon, octagonal
wythnos [ˈʊɨ̯θnɔs] = week
penwythnos = weekend
pythefnos = fortnight (two weeks)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) eath = eight
eathas = eighth
eitag, eythek = eighteen
Cornish (Kernewek) eth = eight
ethves = eighth. octave
etek = eighteen
etegves = eighteenth
Old Breton (Brethonoc) eith = eight
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eiz = eight
eizuet, aihuet, eizved = eighth
eiz-ugeñt, heiz-ugent = 160
eiz-cognecq = octagonal
eiz-cornecq = octagonal, octagon
eizuet, aihuet, eizvet, eizved, eihvet = eighth
éih dyad, ein-déad, eih-diat = about eight
eizdezyeg, eizdeziek = weekly
eizvedi = to divide into eight
Breton (Brezhoneg) eizh = eight
eizhved = eighth
eikont = eighty (usually pevar-ugent)
eizhkognek = octagonal

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *oḱtṓw (eight) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include eight, and words beginning with octa-/octo-, such as October, octane and octopus in English, and words related to eight in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Booths

Words for booths, huts and related things in Celtic languages:

Bothy

Proto-Celtic *butā = place, dwelling, hut
Old Irish (Goídelc) both [boθ] = hut, cabin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) both = hut, bothy, cot, cabin
bothach = full of huts/hovels, hovel-like; crofter
bothán = little hut, cabin, cottage
Irish (Gaeilge) both [bˠɔ(h)/bˠoh]= booth, hut
bothach = hutted, full of huts
bothán = shanty, cabin, hut, shed, coop
bothánach = given to visiting and gossiping
bothánaí = a frequenter of neighbours’ houses
bothánaíocht = (act of) visiting houses for pastime or gossip
bothóg = shanty, cabin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bothan [bɔhan] = cottage, hut, bothy, hovel, shed
bothag [bɔhag] = bothy, small hut, hovel, playhouse
bùth [buː] = shop, booth
bùthan [buː.an] = small booth, small bothy, tent
bùthach [buː.əx] = pertaining to or abounding in shops/booths
bùthanach [buː.anəx] = one who dwells in a small bothy or tent, tent-dweller
Manx (Gaelg) bwaane = booth, cottage, hovel, hut, kiosk, outhouse, shack, shanty, shed
bwaag = booth, bower, cabin, lodge, hut, pavilion, shed
booage = booth, tent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bod, bot, bôd = permanent home, dwelling place, residence, abode
bwth = cabin, booth, cottage
Welsh (Cymraeg) bod = permanent home, dwelling place, residence, abode
bwd = booth, cottage, cabin
bwth = cabin, booth, cottage, shed, hut, outhouse, shack
bwthyn = booth, cot, cottage, hut
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bod, bos, bo- = a dwelling house (found in place names)
bôth = hut, booth
bothoc = hut, cottage
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bôt, bod = residence, refuge, asylum
Breton (Brezhoneg) bod = cottage, dwelling

Etymology: the Proto-Celtic word *butā might come from an unknown language, or from the same PIE root as booth [source].

Etymology (Scottish Gaelic bùth and Welsh bwth): from the Middle English bothe (a store, kiosk, booth, shack, cabin), from the Old Norse búð (booth, shop), from the Proto-Germanic *bōþō/*bōþǭ (buidling, dwelling), from the PIE *bʰuH- (to become, grow, appear) [source].

Words from the same roots include búð (shop, tent, pavilion) in Icelandic, bothy (a primitive dwelling or shelter) in Scots, booth in English, Bude (booth, stall, kiosk, shack, hut) and Baude (mountain hut or inn) in German, bouda (hut, shack, lodge, cabin, booth, stall) in Czech, and bod (shed, shack, shop) in Swedish [source].

Incidentally, the German word Baude comes from Silesian German, from the Czech bouda, from the Old Czech būda, from Middle High German buode, from the Proto-Germanic *bōþō/*bōþǭ [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Sevenfold

Words for seven and related things in Celtic languages:

seven

Proto-Celtic *sextam = seven
*sextametos = seventh
Old Irish (Goídelc) secht [sʲext] = seven
sechtmad = seventh
sechtae = seven things
sechtmoga = seventy
sechtmain = week
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) secht [ɕext] = seven, seven times, seven things
sechtmad, sechtmet, ṡec[t]maid = seventh, one of seven; a period of seven days
sechtae, sechta = sevenfold, septenary, septenary
sechtmoga, sechtmogo, sechtmogat = seventy
sechtmain(e) = week
Irish (Gaeilge) seacht [ʃaxt̪ˠ/ʃæxt̪ˠ]= seven
seacht déag = seventeen
seachtú = seventh (7ᵗʰ), seventh part
seachtach = seventh (in music)
seachtain = week
seachtainiúil = weekly
seachtar = seven people/things
seachtó = seventy
seachtbhliantúil = septennial (a period or cycle of seven years)
seachtchodach = sevenfold
seachtfhillte = folded in seven, sevenfold
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seachd [ʃɛxg] = seven
seachdamh [ʃɛxgəv] (7ᵐʰ) = seventh (7ᵗʰ)
seachdnar [ʃɛxgn̪ər] = seven people
seachd-fillte = sevenfold
seachd-shliosach [ʃesgəd] = heptagon(al)
seachd deug = seventeen
seachdad [ʃɛxgəd] = seventy, the 70s
seachdain [ʃɛxgɛn̪ʲ] = week
seachdaineil [ʃɛxgɪn̪ʲal] = weekly
deireadh-seachdain, ceann-seachdain = weekend
Na Seachd-Reultan = the Pleiades, the Seven Sisters
Manx (Gaelg) shiaght [ʃaːxt] = seven, septet
shiaghtoo, (yn) chiaghtoo = seventh
shiaght jeig = seventeen
shiaght jeigoo = seventeenth
shiaght filley = septuple, sevenfold
shiaghtin = week, heptagon
jerrey shiaghtin = weekend
Gaulish sextam = seven
sextametos = seventh
Proto-Brythonic *seiθ [sɛi̯θ] = seven
*seɨθβ̃ed [hwɛˈxɛːd] = seventh
Cumbric mithy, lethera, saites = seven
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) sseith, seith [sei̯θ] = seven
seithued, seythuet, seithuet = seventh
seith dyblyc, saith ddyblyg = sevenfold
seyth nyn, seyth dyn = seven persons, seven men
Welsh (Cymraeg) saith [sai̯θ] = seven, sevenpence
seithfed (7ed) [ˈsei̯θvɛd/ˈsei̯θvad] = seventh
saithdeg = seventy
saithdegau = seventies
saithdegfed = sevenieth
saithddyblyg = sevenfold
seithawd = a group of seven people or things, septet, seventh (in music)
seithblyg = sevenfold, septuple, have 7 parts or arms (candelabrum)
seithliw = seven colours, seven-coloured, iridescent
seithnyn = seven persons, seven men
seithochr = heptagon(al), septangular
Old Cornish syth = seven
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) seith, syth, sŷth = seven
seithvas, sythvas = seventh
seitag, seitek = seventeen
seithun, seithan, sythyn = week
Cornish (Kernewek) seyth [səiθ] = seven
seythves = seventh
seythen = week
seythennyek, seythednek = weekly
pennseythen = weekend
Old Breton (Brethonoc) seith = seven
Middle Breton (Brezonec) seiz, seyz = seven
seizuet, seizüet, seihuit, seizved = seventh
seizdec, seitec, seytecq, zeitec = seventeen
seitêcvèd, seitekved, zeiteget = seventeenth
sizun, syzun, sehun, siun = week
Breton (Brezhoneg) seizh [ˈxwɛx] = seven
seizhved = seventh
seitek = seventeen
seitegvet = seventeenth
sizhun = week

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *septḿ̥ (seven) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include seven, and words beginning with hepta-/sept(a/i)-, such as heptastyle (having 7 columns), septemplex (sevenfold), septasyllabic (having 7 syllables) and septilateral (having 7 sides) in English, and words related to seven in other Indo-European languages [source].

The Old Irish word sechtmain was borrowed from the Late Latin septimāna (week), from septimānus (related to the 7th element of a series), from the Latin septimus (7th) [source]. Words for week in Cornish and Breton probably came from the same roots.

A week in Welsh is wythnos (“8-night”), as weeks in Wales have an extra night. A weekend is penwythnos and a fortnight (2 weeks) is pythefnos (“15-night”).

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Merciful

Words for merciful and related things in Celtic languages.

Winter Sunshine

Proto-Celtic *trougokaros/*trowkkaro- = merciful
Old Irish (Goídelc) trócar = merciful
trócaire = mercy
Middle Irish (Gaedhealg) trócar, trócair, trocor = merciful, leniency
trócaire, trocaire = mercy, leniency, equity, piety
Irish (Gaeilge) trócaire [ˈt̪ˠɾˠoːkəɾʲə] = mercy, pity, compassion, clemency, leniency
trócaireach = merciful, clement, lenient, compassionate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tròcair [trɔːxgɪrʲ] = mercy, pity, pardon, quarter
tròcaireach [trɔːxgɪrʲəx] = merciful, compassionate
tròcaireachd [trɔːxgɪrʲəxg] = mercifulness, compassion
Manx (Gaelg) trocair = mercifulness, mercy, pity
trocairagh = clement, lenient, merciful
trocairaght = mercy
trocairys = affection, clemency, leniency, mercifulness, ruth
trocairaght = mercy
trochoil = lenient
trochoilys = leniency, mercifulness
Old Welsh trucarauc = merciful, compassionate, kind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trugar, trûgar = merciful, tender-hearted, compassionate
trugaret, trugared = mercy, compassion, pity
trigareddva = mercy-seat, throne (of God), mercy or reconcilliation
trugarha, trukarhaa = to have mercy (on), be kind (to) forgive
trugaraỽc, trugarock, trugaroc = merciful, compassionate, kind
Welsh (Cymraeg) trugar [ˈtrɨgar/ˈtrigar] = merciful, tender-hearted, compassionate
trugaredd = mercy, compassion, pity, tender-heartedness, kindness, humanity, good will; paraphernalia, bits and pieces, knick-knacks
trugareddfa = mercy-seat, throne (of God), mercy or reconcilliation
trugareddol, trugareddus = merciful, compassionate
trugarhaf, trugarhau = to have mercy (on), be kind (to) forgive
trugarog = merciful, compassionate, kind, tender-hearted, gentle, humane, forgiving
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tregereth = compassion, pity, mercy, love
Cornish (Kernewek) tregeredh = compassion, mercy, sympathy
tregeredhus = sensitive, sympathetic
Old Breton trugar = pitiful, wretched, miserable
Middle Breton (Brezonec) trugar = pitiful, wretched, miserable
trugarez = pity, mercy, forgiveness, thanks, misery
Breton (Brezhoneg) trugarez = thank you, mercy, clemency, indulgence
trugarekaat = to thank, pity

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *trougos/*trowgo- (sorry, sad, wretched) and *-karos (loving) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Parts and Pieces

Words for part, piece and related things in Celtic languages:

Puzzle pieces

Proto-Celtic *darnos/*darnā = piece, part
Old Irish (Goídelc) drécht [dʲrʲeːxt] = portion, part
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drecht, drécht = part, portion, section; poem, literary composition
dréchtach = numerous; skilled in song or poetry
dréchtfaid = to divide up
Irish (Gaeilge) dréacht [dʲɾʲeːxt̪ˠ]= part, portion, draft, detachment, number; (literary) piece, composition; draft
dréachtach = composer, poet; skilled in/diligent at compostion
dréachtaigh = to draft
dréachtín = versicle, stanza
dréachtóir = drafter, draughtsman (of documents)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreachd [drɛxg] = draft
dreachd-aithisge = draft report
dreachd-dhealbh = working drawing
Manx (Gaelg) draght, dreaght = draft
draghtey = to draw up
dreaght feeleeaght = a piece of poetry
Proto-Brythonic *darn = piece, fragment, part
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) darn = piece, fragment, part, portion, section, lump, patch, coin
darnaw, darnio, darnu = to break or tear in pieces
Welsh (Cymraeg) darn [darn] = piece, fragment, part, portion, section, lump, patch, coin
darn yn narn = piecemeal, piece by piece
darn arian = piece of silver, silver coin
darn aur = gold piece, gold coin
darn grot = a groat
darniad = a breaking in pieces, a shattering
darn(i)af, darn(i)o, darnu = to break or tear in pieces, mangle, dismember
darn(i)edig = broken or torn to pieces, mangled
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) darn = a fragment, piece
Cornish (Kernewek) darn = bit, fragment, part, piece
darn papur = slip of paper
darnas = portion
Middle Breton (Brezonec) darn = piece, part, slice (of fish)
darnaou = exhausted, worn-out
darnaouer = one who disturbs
darnaouet, darnouet, darnaöuet = torn to pieces, very tired
darnaouus, darnaouüs = divisible
Breton (Brezhoneg) darn = fragment, part, partial,
darnaou = exhausted, worn-out
darnamzer = part-time
darnel = partial

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *der (to split, separate, tear, crack, shatter). The French word darne (thick slice of big round fish, part of the body) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root via Breton [source].

Words from the same PIE root include dermal, dermic and (to) tear in English, zehren (to live on, feed on, undermine, wear out) in German, and драть [dratʲ] (to tear to pieces) in Russian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Hexagonal

Words for six and related things in Celtic languages:

Six

Proto-Celtic *swexs = six
*suexos = sixth
Old Irish (Goídelc) [sʲeː] = six
seisser = six people
séda = six things
seissed [ˈsʲesʲeð] = sixth
sesca [ˈsʲeska] = sixty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sé, se, sē = six
seisser, seissiur, seissir = six people
seissed, sesset, sesedh, seisedh = sixth, one of six
sé déc = sixteen
sesca, sescot, sescat = sixty
Irish (Gaeilge) [ʃeː/ʃɛ/ʃə]= six
(an) seú = sixth
seisear = six people
sé déag = sixteen
seasca = sixty
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sia [ʃia] = six
(an) siathamh [ʃiə.əv] (6ᵐʰ) = sixth (6ᵗʰ)
sianar [ʃianər] = six people
sia deug = sixteen
seasgad [ʃesgəd] = sixty
sia-cheàrnach = hexagon
Manx (Gaelg) shey = six, sextet
sheyoo, (yn) çheyoo = sixth
shey jeig = sixteen
shey jeigoo = sixteenth
shey keayrtyn = sextuple, six times
shey pingyn = sixpence
Gaulish suex = six
suexos = sixth
Proto-Brythonic *hwex [ˈhwɛːx] = six
*hwexed [hwɛˈxɛːd] = sixth
Cumbric sethera, hither = six
Old Welsh chwech = six
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwech, whech, whe, hwech, chwe = six
hhuechet, cchuehet, chwechet, whechet = sixth
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwech [χweːχ/hweːχ] = six, sixpence
chweched (6ed) [ˈχwɛχɛd/ˈχwɛχad] = sixth
chwedeg = sixty
chwedegfed = sixieth
chwechant = six hundred
chwecheiniog = sixpenny bit, sixpence
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huih, hweh, whéh = six
hweffas, wheffes = sixth
whehdeg = sixteen
whehdegvas = sixteenth
Cornish (Kernewek) hwegh = six
hweghves, hweffes = sixth
hwetek = sixteen
hwetegves = sixteenth
hweghmis = semester
Old Breton (Brethonoc) chouech = six
Middle Breton (Brezonec) huech, huec, c’huec’h, chouech, hueh = six
huechuet, huehuet, c’huec’hved = sixth
c’huezec, c’houezek = sixteen
c’houezekved = sixteenth
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwec’h [ˈxwɛx] = six
c’hwec’hvet = sixth
c’hwezek = sixteen
c’hwezekvet = sixteenth
c’hwec’h-ugent = 120 (6*20)
c’hwec’h-kement = sextuple
c’hwec’h-kogn = hexagon
c’hwec’h-miz = semester

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European swéḱs (six). Words from the same PIE root include six, sextuple, and words beginning with hex-, such as hexagon in English, and words for six in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic