Omniglot News (27/11/22)

Here’s the latest news from the world of Omniglot.

There are new language pages about:

  • Aneityum (Anejom̃), a Southern Oceanic language spoken on Aneityum Island in Tafea Province in the south of Vanuatu.
  • Kokota (Ooe Kokota), a Western Oceanic language spoken on Santa Isabel Island in Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands.
  • Nobonob, a Madang language spoken in Madang Province in Papua New Guinea.

New constructed script: Latin Partabet, which is an alternative way to write English using parts of Latin letters.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Latin Partabet

New adapated script: Japan Arabic, a way to write Japanese with the Arabic script.

سوبوتي نو نينڬين وا جييوٓ ني اوماري، سونڬين تو كينري نو تيندي بيوٓدوٓديسو. كاريرا ني وا ايشيكي‌ تو كنجوٓ ڬا اري، اوتاڬاي ني كوٓدوٓ سورو هيتسويوٓ ڬا اريماسو كيوٓداي أي نو سييشين دي.

There are new numbers pages in:

  • Manam, a Western Oceanic language spoken on Manam Island in Papua New Guinea.
  • Sursurunga, a Western Oceanic language spoken in Namatanai district of New Ireland Province of Papua New Guinea.
  • Western Subanon (Sinubanon), a Philippine language spoken on the Zamboanga Peninsula in the Mindanao region of the Philippines.
  • Kokota (Ooe Kokota), a Western Oceanic language spoken on Santa Isabel Island in Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands.

New Tower of Babel translation in Aneityum

On the Omniglot blog there’s a new post called Water Trumpets, which is about the French phrase une trombe d’eau (cloudburst, downpour), and there’s the usual Language Quiz. See if you can guess what language this is:

Here’s a clue: this language is spoken in parts of West Africa.

The mystery language in last week’s language quiz was Inuinnaqtun, an Inuit language spoken in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, of Canada.

There’s a new Celtiadur post about words for Sticks and Rods and related things in Celtic languages.

On the Celtic Pathways podcast we’re examining some words for flowers and related things.

In the Adventure in Etymology we’re looking into the origins of the word quiver, both the quiver for arrows, and quiver as in to shake, which come from different roots.

In other news, I went to a concert this week featuring N’famady Kouyaté, a singer and musician from Guinea in West Africa, who is based in Cardiff in Wales. He sings in Mandinka and Susu, and possibly in other languages, and also adds bits of English and Welsh in some songs. It was great fun. Here are a couple of his songs:

For more Omniglot News see:
https://www.omniglot.com/news/
https://twitter.com/Omniglossia
https://www.facebook.com/groups/omniglot/
https://www.facebook.com/Omniglot-100430558332117

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Adventures in Etymology – Quiver

In this Adventure we investigate the origins of the word quiver.

Mongol Bow and Arrow Quiver

A quiver [ˈkwɪvə / ˈkwɪvɚ] is:

  • A portable case for holding arrows
  • A collection or store

To quiver means:

  • To shake with a slight, rapid, tremulous movement
  • To tremble, as from cold or strong emotion.

Quiver as an adjective means:

  • fast, speedy, rapid
  • energetic, vigourous, vibrant

The quiver for arrows comes from the Middle English quiver/whiver (a quiver, arrow case, case for a bow) from the Anglo-Norman quivre (a quiver), from the Old Dutch cocere/kokere (a quiver, case) from the Proto-West Germanic *kukur (container), possibly from Hunnic and/or ultimately from Proto-Mongolic *kökexür (leather vessel for liquids, snuff bottle) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Mongolic root include хөхүүр / ᠬᠥᠬᠦᠦᠷ [xoxur] (leather bag for holding liquid, wineskin, waterskin, snuffbox) in Mongolian, koker [ˈkoː.kər] (tube, cylinder, quiver) in Dutch, Köcher [ˈkœçɐ] (a quiver) in German, and kukkaro [ˈkukːɑro] (purse) in Finnish [source].

The verb to quiver and the adjective quiver (fast, energetic, vigourous) come from the Middle English quvier/cwiver (active, agile, lively, brisk, quick), from the Old English *cwifer, possibly related to cwic (alive. living, intelligent, keen), from which we get the modern English word quick [source].

Here’s a video I made of this information:

Video made with Doodly [afflilate link].

I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog, and I explore etymological connections between Celtic languages on the Celtiadur.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Celtic Pathways – Flowers

In this episode we’re look into words for flowers and related things.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

In Proto-Celtic, the word *blātus meant flower of blossom. It comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *bʰleh₃- (bloom, flower) [source].

Descendents in the modern Celtic languages include:

  • bláth [bˠl̪ˠɑː/bˠl̪ˠaː] = blossom, flower; bloom, beauty, prime; prosperity or abundance in Irish
  • blàth [bl̪ˠaː] = bloom, blossom, flower, consequence, effect or heyday in Scottish Gaelic
  • blaa [bleː] = bloom, blossom, flower, heyday or pride in Manx
  • blodyn [ˈblɔdɨ̞n / ˈbloːdɪn] = flower, bloom, blossoms, florets, flowering plant or petal in Welsh
  • bleujen [ˈblɛdʒən] = blossom or flower in Cornish
  • bleuñv [blœ̃w] = flowers, flowering, apogee or menstruation in Breton

The Proto-Celtic word *blātus became *blātōnā (flower) in Gaulish, which was borrowed into Medieval Latin as blādōna (mullein – plants of the genus Verbascum), which became belladonna (a.k.a. deadly nightshade / Atropa belladonna) in Italian [source].

English words from the same PIE root include bloom, blossom, blade, flower, flour, flourish, foliage and folio [source].

Incidentally, words meaning flour in some Celtic languages come from the same PIE root, via Anglo-Norman, Old French, Latin and Proto-Italic. They include fflŵr/fflowr in Welsh, flooyr in Manx, flùr in Scottish Gaelic, and plúr in Irish, which also means flower [more details].

More details of flower-related words in Celtic languages can be found on the Celtiadur, a blog where I explore connections between Celtic languages in more depth. I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Adventures in Etymology – Nonchalant

In this Adventure we’re calmly looking into the origins of the word nonchalant.

Isabelle

Nonchalant [ˈnɒn.ʃəl.ənt / ˌnɑn.ʃəˈlɑnt] means:

  • casually calm and relaxed
  • indifferent, unconcerned, behaving as if detached

It comes from the French nonchalant (indolent, cool, relaxed) from the Old French nonchaloir (to have no importance, indifference), from non- (not) and chaloir (to heat, bother, concern), from the Latin calēre (to matter or care) from caleō (I am warm or hot, I glow) [source].

Words from the same Latin roots include calorie, cauldron, chowder, caldera, coddle and scald in English, calor (heat) in Spanish, and chaleur (heat, warmth, fervour) in French [source].

If you can be nonchalant, can you be chalant? Well, the word chalent does exist, at least in informal use, and means careful, attentive or concerned [source], or concerning, frustrating and possibly hostile [source].

Here’s a video I made of this information:

Video made with Doodly [afflilate link].

I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog, and I explore etymological connections between Celtic languages on the Celtiadur.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Omniglot News (13/11/22)

Here’s the latest news from the world of Omniglot.

There are new language pages about:

  • Nengone (p’ene nengone), a Southern Oceanic language spoken mainly on Maré and Tiga islands, which are part Loyalty Islands Province in New Caledonia.
  • Daakaka, a Southern Oceanic language spoken in the southwest of Ambrym Island in Malampa Province of Vanuatu
  • Sa (Lokit), a Southern Oceanic language spoken in the south of Pentecost Island in Penama Province of Vanuatu.

New constructed script: Cebuano Script (Suwat Sinugbu), which was created by John Clement Husain and Mares Barrioquinto as an alternative way to write Cebuano (Bisaya), a Philippine language spoken mainly in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines.

Sample text in the Cebuano Script

There are new numbers pages in:

  • Etruscan (mekh Rasnal), a language that was spoken in Eturia in Italy from about 600 BC to the 5th century AD.
  • Nengone (p’ene nengone), a Southern Oceanic language spoken mainly on Maré and Tiga islands in New Caledonia.
  • Ingrian (Ižoran keeli), a Finno-Ugric language spoken in the Ingria region in the northwest of the Russian Federation.

There’s a new version of the Tower of Babel story in Lun Bawang, a North Bornean language spoken in the Sesayap river area of North Kalimantan province in Indonesia.

There’s an Omniglot blog post about the word Myriad and other ways to refer to a large or countless number, and the usual Language Quiz. See if you can guess what language this is:

Here’s a clue: this language is spoken in the Northern Territory of Australia.

The mystery language in last week’s language quiz was Cimbrian (Tzimbrisch), a Germanic language spoken in northeastern Italy.

There’s a new Celtiadur post about words for Up Above and related things in Celtic languages.

On the Celtic Pathways podcast we’re looking at some Crooked and Twisted words.

In the Adventure in Etymology we’re getting perplexed and confused by the origins of the word Befuddle.

I joined Mastodon this week, specifically Polyglot City. I’ll be posting there fairly regularly as Omniglot. Join me if you’d like to.

In other news, I went to a concert this week featuring the Welsh harpist, Catrin Finch, and the Senegalese kora player, Seckou Keita, who sang in Wolof and Mandinka – not languages you hear very often in Bangor.

Here’s one of the tunes they played:

For more Omniglot News see:
https://www.omniglot.com/news/
https://twitter.com/Omniglossia
https://www.facebook.com/groups/omniglot/
https://www.facebook.com/Omniglot-100430558332117

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Adventures in Etymology – Befuddle

In this Adventure in Etymology we are getting perplexed and confused by the origins of the word befuddle.

Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithicus rosalia)

Befuddle [bɪˈfʌdl] means:

  • to perplex or confuse (sb)
  • to stupefy (sb), especially with alcohol

It comes from be- (a prefix) and fuddle (to confuse, intoxicate, get drunk; intoxication, a muddle or confusion) [source], possibly from the Low German fud(d)eln (to work negligently) [source].

Related words include befuddlement (a state of being befuddled), fuddlesome (confusing), fuddler (drunkard) and fuddling (intoxication).

Incidentally, in some English dialects, such as in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and Bedfordshire, a fuddle is a party or picnic where attendees bring food and wine.

Such an event might also be called a potluck, potluck dinner, pitch-in, shared lunch, faith supper, covered-dish supper, Jacob’s Join, bring a plate or fellowship meal [source]. Other names are available. What would you call it?

According to the description of the photo, which is of a Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithicus rosalia) by the way, “Tamarins are easy to confuse. I just asked him what the square root of 5 was, and he got all befuddled.” So it’s a good way to illustrate befuddlement, and I like to use photos of cute animals on my posts, because why the hell not?

Here’s a video I made of this information:

Video made with Doodly [afflilate link].

I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog, and I explore etymological connections between Celtic languages on the Celtiadur.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Celtic Pathways – Crooked and Twisted

In this episode we’re looking at some crooked and twisted words.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

In Proto-Celtic, the word *kambos meant twisted, crooked or bent. It comes from the Proto-Indo-European word *kh₂em- (to arch, bend, curve), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

Descendents in the modern Celtic languages include:

  • cam [kaumˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud; to bend, crook, distort in Irish
  • cam [kaum] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick in Scottish Gaelic
  • cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong in Manx
  • cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding in Welsh
  • kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong in Cornish
  • kamm = angled, bent, bend in Breton

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos is the root of the Galician words camba (doorjamb of an oven, handmill), cambar (to bend), cambiar (to change) [source]. The word cambiar (to change) in Spanish and Portuguese, and the word change in English come from the same Celtic roots [source].

*kambos is possibly also the root of the French word as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], which was borrowed into English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose – used until the 19th century) [source].

The English word kam (crooked, awry) was borrowed from the Welsh word cam, but is no longer used [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

More details of crooked words in Celtic languages can be found on the Celtiadur, a blog where I explore connections between Celtic languages in more depth. I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Omniglot News (06/11/22)

Here’s the latest news from the world of Omniglot.

There are new language pages about:

  • Big Numbas (V’ënen Taut), an Oceanic language spoken in the Big Numbas region in the northwest of Malekula Island in Malampa Province of Vanuatu.
  • Neverver, a Southern Oceanic language spoken on Malekula Island in Malampa Province of Vanuatu.
  • Tamambo (Tamabo), a Remote Oceanic language spoken mainly on Malo Island in Sanma province of Vanuatu.

New constructed script: Katemayar, which was created by Bryson Schnaitmann to write his constructed language, Kynaatt.

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Katemayar

There are new numbers pages in:

  • Ambel (galí Ambél), a Malayo-Polynesian spoken mainly on Waigeo island in West Papua province in eastern Indonesia.
  • Big Numbas (V’ënen Taut), an Oceanic language spoken in the Big Numbas region in the northwest of Malekula Island in Malampa Province of Vanuatu.
  • Paku, an East Barito language spoken in Central Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
  • Warao, a language isolate spoken in Delta Amacuro, Monagas and Sucre states of Venezuela.

There’s an Omniglot blog post called Tidy! about Dutch words for tidying and cleaning, and the usual Language Quiz. See if you can guess what language this is:

Here’s a clue: this language is spoken in Italy.

The mystery language in last week’s language quiz was Tamahaq, a Northern Berber language spoken in southern Algeria, western Libya and northern Niger.

There are new Celtiadur posts about words for Halloween, Hosts of Folks and related things in Celtic languages.

On the Celtic Pathways podcast we have a A Slew of Slogans, which is about words for slogan, slew and related things.

In the Adventure in Etymology find possible links between the word rubble and words such as rubbish, hale, hail, whole and holy.

Here’s a bit of music – some Minor Noodles that I recorded yesterday featuring a friend on the guitar and me on the mandolin:

For more Omniglot News see:
https://www.omniglot.com/news/
https://twitter.com/Omniglossia
https://www.facebook.com/groups/omniglot/
https://www.facebook.com/Omniglot-100430558332117

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Adventures in Etymology – Rubble

There’s some building work going on at my house, so in this Adventure we’re digging into the origins of the word rubble.

Rubble

Rubble [ˈɹʌb.əl] is:

  • the broken remains of an object, usually rock or masonry
  • rough, irregular stones broken from larger masses, esp. waste fragments from the demolition of a building, etc.

It comes from the Middle English rouble/rubel/robel, from the Anglo-Norman *robel (bits of broken stone), possibly from the Old Norse rubba (to huddle, crowd together, heap up), from the Proto-Germanic *rubbōną (to rub, scrape) [source].

It is probably related to the word rubbish (refuse, waste, garbage, junk, trash), which was robous (rubbish, buidling rubble) in Middle English [source]. The word rub possibly comes from the same roots as well [source].

Here’s a video I made of this information:

Video made with Doodly [afflilate link].

I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog, and I explore etymological connections between Celtic languages on the Celtiadur.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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Celtic Pathways – A Slew of Slogans

In this episode we’re looking into the Celtic roots of the words slogan and slew.

A Slew of Slogans

In English the word slogan means a distinctive phrase of a person or group of people, a motto, a catchphrase, and formerly, a battle cry used by the Irish or by Scottish highlanders [source].

In the past it was written sloggorne, slughorne or slughorn, and it comes from the Scottish Gaelic sluagh-ghairm [ˈsɫ̪uəɣɤɾʲəm] (battle cry) from the Old Irish slóg/slúag (army, host, throng, crowd), and gairm (call, cry, crow, proclamation) [source].

The Old Irish word slóg/slúag comes from the Proto-Celtic *slougos (troop, army), from the Proto-Indo-European *slowg(ʰ)os (entourage) [source].

Celtic words from the same root include:

  • slua [sˠl̪ˠuə] = host, force, army; crowd, multitude, throng in Irish
  • sluagh [sl̪ˠuəɣ] = folk, people, populace; the fairy host; crowd in Scottish Gaelic
  • sleih = commonalty, crowd, family, inhabitants, people, populace, public, relations in Manx
  • llu [ɬɨː / ɬiː] = host, a large number (of people), a great many, multitude, throng, crowd in Welsh
  • lu [ly: / liˑʊ] = army, military, troop in Cornish
  • lu = army in Breton

Words for family and household in Celtic languages, such as teaghlach in Irish and teulu in Welsh, come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via *tegoslougom (“house army”) [source].

The English word slew (a large amount), as in “a slew of papers” was borrowed from the Irish slua [source].

Words from the same PIE root include слуга (servant) in Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Ukrainian and Serbian; sługa (minion, servant) in Polish; sluha (servant) in Czech and Slovak, slugă (servant, domestic) in Romanian, and szolga (servant, attendant) in Hungarian [source].

The Old Irish word gairm (call, cry, crow, proclamation) comes from the Proto-Celtic *gar(r)man- (cry, shout), from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵh₂r̥-smn̥, from *ǵeh₂r- (to shout, cry).

Celtic words from the same root include:

  • gairm [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = call, summons, calling, vocation in Irish
  • gairm [ɡɤrʲɤm] = calling, crying, call, cry, announcing, declaring, convenning, call of the cockerel in Scottish Gaelic
  • gerrym = crowing, outcry, shouting, whoop, whooping, (cock) crow), avocation, mission, profession, vocation in Manx
  • garm = shout, cry, outcry, clamour in Welsh
  • garm = shout, whoop, yell in Cornish
  • garm = cry, clamour, weeping in Breton

Words from the same roots include gáir (cry, shout, report) in Irish, goir (to call, cry, hoot) in Scottish Gaelic, gair (word, speech) in Welsh [more details].

The English words garrulous (excessively talkative), care and charm (sound of many voices (esp. of birds or children), a flock or group (esp. of finches)) as come from the same PIE roots [source].

More details about words for Troop, host, throng can be found on the Celtiadur, a blog where I explore connections between Celtic languages in more depth. I also write about words, etymology and other language-related topics on the Omniglot Blog.

You can also listen to this podcast on: Apple Podcasts, Amazon Music, Stitcher, TuneIn, Podchaser, PlayerFM or podtail.

If you would like to support this podcast, you can make a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or contribute to Omniglot in other ways.

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