Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trembing

Words for trembling, fever and related words in Celtic languages. I chose these words because I have a bit of a fever at the moment.

Thermometer

Proto-Celtic *kritos = fever, trembling, shaking
Old Irish (Goídelc) crith [ˈkʲr͈ʲiθ] = shaking, trembling
crithnaigid = to shake, tremble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crith = shaking, trembling, a shake, tremble
crothaid = shakes, causes to tremble, brandishes
Irish (Gaeilge) crith [crʲɪ(h) / crʲɪç] = tremble, shiver, tremor, shudder, vibration, quiver; to tremble, shake
critheagla = quaking fear, terror, timorousness
crithloinnir = shimmer
crithlonraigh = to shimmer
creathán = to tremble, quiver
creathánach = trembling, quivering, vibratory
creathánaí = trembler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crith [krʲih] = quake, shudder, shock, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate; quaking, shuddering, shocking, shaking, trembling, shivering
critheanaich = trembling
crith-cheòl = warbling, quavering, trills (in music)
crith-thalmhainn = earthquake
crithnich = quake, shudder, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate
Manx (Gaelg) crie = to shake
craa = to shake
Old Welsh crit = shivering, trembling, fever
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crid, cryt, kryt = shivering, trembling, fever
crynei, krynu, krennit = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake
Welsh (Cymraeg) cryd [krɨːd / kriːd] = shivering, trembling, dread, fear, ague, fever, disease
crydu, crydio = to shake, tremble, quake
crynu = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake, brandish, vibrate, quaver, gnash, twinkle
echryd = dread, terror, fright, fear, trembling, shivering, tremor; fearful, dreadful, frightful
ysgryd = shiver, trembling, shudder, fright, horror, agony
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crenne, cranna = to tremble, quake
Cornish (Kernewek) kren = shake
krena, kerna = to shake, shiver, tremble
krenans = vibration
Krener, Krenores = Quaker
dorgrys = earthquake
Old Breton crit = shivering, trembling
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kren, crezn, creen, crein = trembling
crenaff = to tremble
crezn doüar, crein doüar = earthquake
Breton (Brezhoneg) kren = trembling
krenañ = to tremble
kren-douar = earthquake
krendourarel = seismic

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krit-, from *(s)kreyt-, from *(s)ker- (twist, turn, bend) [source].

The English word scree (loose stony debris on a slope), comes from the same PIE root, via the Old Norse skriða (landscape, landslip) and the Proto-Germanic *skrīþaną (to crawl, glide, walk) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard Steel

Today we’re looking at the words for steel and related things in Celtic languages.

Steel

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúr = hard, hardy, resolute, rigid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dúr = rigid, hard, solid; difficult; hard to bear; strict, austere; hardy, resolute; unfeeling, dour, obdurate
Irish (Gaeilge) dúr = hard, rigid, solid; dour, grim, obstinate; dense, stupid, blunt, insensitive; sluggish
dúramán = dull-witted, stupid person
dúramánta = dull-witted, stupid
dúranta = dour, grim, morose, sullen
dúrantacht = dourness, sullenness
dúrapóg = surly person
dúrchroí = hard heart, hardness of heart
dúrchroíoch = hard hearted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dùr [duːr] = stubborn, intractable; obstinate, dull, stupid; persevering
durganta = rigid, stiff, hardened; robust, rigorous; obstinate, dogged; sullen, morose; grim, forbidding
Manx (Gaelg) douyr = mournful, uncomfortable, unhappy, afflicting
Proto-Brythonic *dʉr = hard, hard metal, steel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dur = steel
Welsh (Cymraeg) dur [dɨːr / diːr] = steel, steel weapon; hard, cruel
duraidd = steely, hard, faithful, true
durawdr = steel sword or lance
dur bwrw = cast steel
edau ddur = wire
fel y dur = true as steel, like steel
llifddur = file, rasp
Cornish (Kernewek) dur = steel
dur dinamm = stainless steel
Breton (Brezhoneg) dir = steel
dir disvergi = stainless steel
kazeg-dir = bicycle (“steel mare”)

Etymology from the Latin dūrus (hard, rough, harsh), from the Proto-Indo-European *drew- (hard, fast), from *dóru (tree) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include the Scots word dour (hard, stern, severe, relentless), possibly via Middle Irish, which was also borrowed into English and means stern, harsh or forbidding; the French word dur (hard, tough, harsh), the Italian word duro (hard, tough, harsh), and the Spanish word duro (hard, form, solid) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Celtic words for oak (tree), and the English words true, trough and trim [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachghreanadóireacht = steel-engraving
cruachobair = steelwork
cruachphláta = steel-plate
cruachphlátáilte = steel-plated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
Manx (Gaelg) creoighey = steel

Etymology from the Irish crua (hard), from the Old Irish crúaid (hard, hardy, harsh, stern, strict), from the Proto-Celtic *kroudis (rude), possibly from *krū- (blood), from the Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂-. (blood) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stàilinn [sdaːl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ] = steel
clòimh-stàilinn = steel wool
obraiche-stàilinn = steelworker
ionad-stàilinn = steelworks
Manx (Gaelg) staillin, steillyn, steillin = steel
staillinagh = steel-maker, steel
obbyr staillinagh = steelwork
ollan staillinagh = steel wool
snaie staillinagh = steel wire
towse staillinagh = steelyard

Etymology from the Old Norse stál (steel, sword), from the Proto-Germanic stahlą (steel), from the Proto-Indo-European *stek- (to be firm, stand fast) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include steel in English, staal (steel) in Dutch, Stahl (steel) in German, and stål (steel, tool) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ladles and Spoons

Ladles and Jellyspoons, or if you prefer, Ladies and Gentlemen, today we are look at words for spoon, ladle and related words in Celtic languages.

Welsh Love Spoon

Proto-Celtic *lēgā = spoon
Old Irish (Goídelc) líach [l͈ʲiːa̯x] = spoon, laddle
Irish (Gaeilge) liach [l̠ʲiəx] = laddle, ladleful, measure
liachlán = ladleful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) liogh [l̪ʲɤɣ] = blade (of an oar, helicopter), vane (of a mill), ladle, hero
liogh ràimh = oar blade
Manx (Gaelg) lheegh = ladle
lheegh awree = soup ladle
Proto-Brythonic *lluɨɣ = spoon, scoop, ladle, trowel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llwy = spoon, ladle, trowel
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwy [ɬuːɨ̯] = spoon, ladle, scoop, trowel, spatula, bucket, float, paddle (of a water-wheel)
llwy de = teaspoon
llwy fwrdd = tablespoon
llwy gawl = soup spoon
llwy grochan, llwy droetir = ladle
llwy bren = wooden spoon
llwy serch = love-spoon
llwyaid = spoonful, shovelful
llwyar(n) = trowel, fire-shovel, slive, scoop, corer, spatula
llwyar(n)u = to spread and smooth with a trowel or shovel
llwyo = to spoon or ladle (out)
llwywr = spoon-maker
Old Cornish loe = spoon
Cornish (Kernewek) lo = spoon
lo balas = trowel
lo de = teaspoon
lo ledan = ladle
lo vras = tablespoon
Old Breton loi = spoon
Middle Breton loa = spoon
Breton (Brezhoneg) loa = spoon, striker, gouge, trowel, pliers
loa-dizourañ = slotted spoon
loa goad = wooden spoon
loa-gafe = teaspoon
loa-voued = soup spoon

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *leyǵʰ- (lick) [source]. The English word lick comes from the same PIE root via the Middle English likken (to lick), the Old English liccian (to lick), the Proto-West Germanic *likkōn (to lick), and the Proto-Germanic *likkōną (to lick) [source]

Irish (Gaeilge) spúnóg [sˠpˠuːˈn̪ˠoːɡ / ˈsˠpˠuːnˠaɡ] = spoon, spoonful
spúnóg tae / spúnóg bheag / taespúnóg = teaspoon
spúnóg mhór / spúnóg bhoird = tablespoon
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) spàin [sbaːn̪ʲ] = spoon, blade (of an oar)
spàin-bhùird = tablespoon
spàin-fhiodha = wooden spoon
spàin-teatha, spàin-tì = teaspoon
spàinach = like or pertaining to spoons
spàineag = small spoon, small spoonful
Manx (Gaelg) spein = spoon
spein ambee = dessert spoon
spein ooh = egg spoon

Etymology (Irish): from the English spoon, from the Middle English spo(u)ne/spo(o)n (spoon, chip of wood), from the Old English spōn (sliver, chip of wood, shaving), from the Proto-West Germanic *spānu (chip, shaving, spoon), from the Proto-Germanic *spēnuz (chip, flake, shaving), from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)peh₂- (chip, shaving, log, length of wood) [source].

Etymology (Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse spánn/spónn (chip, shaving, spoon), from the Proto-Germanic *spēnuz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thunder

Words for thunder and related words in Celtic languages.

Thunder

Proto-Celtic *toranos = thunder
Gaulish *taranus = thunder
Tanaris / *Toranos / *Tonaros / *Tanaros = Celtic god of thunder.
Old Irish (Goídelc) torann = thunder
Irish (Gaeilge) torann [ˈt̪ˠɔɾˠən̪ˠ/ˈt̪ˠʌɾˠən̪ˠ] = noise, thunder, (tumult of) battle
toirneach [ˈt̪ˠoːɾˠn̠ʲəx/ˈt̪ˠaːɾˠn̠ʲa(x)] = thunder, thunderclap
toirniúil = thundery, thundering, noisy
torannach / toranda = noisy
torannáil = (act of) making noise, rumbling
marbhthoirneach = subdued, distant thunder
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) torrann [tɔr̪ˠən̪ˠ] = loud murmur, rumble, thunder
torrunn [tɔr̪ˠən̪ˠ] = loud murmur, rumble, thunder
toireann [tɤrʲən̪ˠ] = thunder
tàirneach [taːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = thunder
tàirneanach [taːr̪ˠn̪ʲənəx] = thunder
torrann-sgòth = thundercloud
mòthar an tàirneanaich = the roar of thunder
Manx (Gaelg) taarnagh / taarnaghey = thunder, thundering
rooit haarnee = thunder-clap
bodjal taarnee = thunder cloud
frass taarnee = thunder shower
Proto-Brythonic *taran = thunder
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) taran = (peal of) thunder, thunderclap
Welsh (Cymraeg) taran [ˈtaran/ˈtaːran] = thunder, thunderclap, thunderbolt
taranau = thunder
taranu = to thunder, roar, fulminate, vociferate, cause/give forth thunder
taran(i)ad = thundering, clap of thunder, roar, loud noise like thunder
mellt a tharanau = thunder and lightning
Old Cornish taran = thunder
Cornish (Kernewek) taran = thunder
tarenna, taredna = to thunder
taran sonek = sonic boom
tardh taran = thunderclap
Old Breton taran = thunder
Breton (Brezhoneg) taran = thunder, thundering, flashes, growls, grumbling

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)tenh₂- (to thunder) [source].

Words for thunder in Germanic languages come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *þunraz (thunder, Germanic deity), including thunder in English, donder in Dutch, Donner in German, and torden in Norwegian, and also the Old Norse Þórr (Thor – god of thunder), from whom we get the word Thursday [source].

The English word tornado comes from the same PIE root, via the Spanish tronada (thunderstorm), from tronar (to thunder), from the Latin tonō (to thunder), from which we also get words for thunder in Romance languages [source].

The name of the River Tanaro in northwestern Italy comes from the Latin Tanarus, from the Gaulish *Tanaros [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trousers, Socks and Sites

Words for trousers, socks, sites and related words in Celtic languages.

Red Trousers

Proto-Celtic *ɸlātrom = flat position
Old Irish (Goídelc) láthar [ˈl͈aːθar] = arrangement, disposition
láthraid [ˈl͈aːθrɨðʲ] = to arrange, to dispose
Irish (Gaeilge) láthair [ˈl̪ˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈl̪ˠæhəɾʲ] = place, spot, site, location; presence
as láthair = absent
faoi láthair = at present
i láthair = present
láithreach = ruined site, ruin, trace; imprint; present (tense)
láithreacht = presence
láithreán = piece of ground, place, site; ruined, vacated site; floor, space; set
láithreog = small site; trace, mark; small well-built girl
láithrigh = to present oneself, appear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làthair [l̪ˠaː.ɪrʲ] = presence, venue
an làthair = present, here, in attendance; extant; in existence
neo-làthair = absent
neo-làthaireachd = absence
làthaireach = present
làthaireachd = presence; attendance; atmosphere
uile-làthaireachd = omnipresence
Manx (Gaelg) laaragh = centric(al), stage, centre, venue, site
emshir-laaragh = present tense
neuaaragh, assaaragh = absent
ooilley-laaragh = ubiquitous
Proto-Brythonic *lọdr = leg covering
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llauder, llahudyr, llawdyr, llodr = trousers, breeches, hose
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawdr [ˈɬaːu̯dr] = trousers, breeches, hose
llawdrog, llodrog = wearing breeches, bedraggled
llawdrwisg = breeches
llawdrwr, llodrydd, llodrwr = breeches-maker
llaesu llawdr = to undo one’s trousers (to ease oneself)
Old Cornish loder = sock
Cornish (Kernewek) lodrik = sock
Middle Breton louzr = sock
Breton (Brezhoneg) loer = sock, (trouser) leg

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *pleh₂- (flat) [source].

From the same PIE root we also get Celtic words for hand, from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand) [source], which was borrowed from Old Irish into Old Norse and became lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) in Faroese [source].

Words for floor and ground in Celtic languages also come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Celtic *ɸlārom (floor) [source].

English words from the same PIE root include floor, palm, piano, plain, plan and plane, and also Poland [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bríste [ˈbʲɾʲiːʃtʲə] = trousers; breeching (of harness); roe (of pollock)
brístín = panties, knickers
fobhríste = underpants
forbhríste = overalls
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) briogais [brʲigɪʃ] = trousers, breeches
briogais-ghlùine = shorts, plus fours
briogais-ghoirid, briogais-bheag = shorts
briogais-shnàimh = swimming trunks
Manx (Gaelg) breeçhyn = breeches
breeçhyn glioonagh = knee breeches
breeçhyn markee = riding breeches
Welsh (Cymraeg) brits(h) = breeches
britis pen-(g)lin = knee-breeches
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties

Etymology: from the English breeches, from the Middle English brech(e), brek (breeches), from the Old English brēċ (underpants), from the Proto-Germanic *brōkiz, from *brōks (leggings, pants, trousers; rear end, rump) the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (to break, crack, split) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) triubhas = closs-fitting shorts
Irish (Gaeilge) triús = (pair of) trousers, trews
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) triubhas [tru.əs] = trousers, trews
Manx (Gaelg) troosyn = slacks, pants, trews, tights, trouser, knickers
troosyn çhionn = pantaloons
troosyn giarey = short trousers
troosyn markee = jodhpurs
Welsh (Cymraeg) trywsus, trywser, trowsus [ˈtrou̯sɨ̞s/ˈtrou̯sɪs] = trousers, breeches, knickers, panties
trywsus bach = shorts, short trouserse, knickerbockers
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties
bragoù = trousers

Etymology (Welsh): from the English trousers, from the Middle Irish triubhas (trousers, trews) of uncertain origin [source]. The English word trews (trousers, especially if close fitting and tartan) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) lavrek = trousers
lavrek byghan = briefs, underpants
lavrek jin = jeans
lavrek kott = short
Breton (Brezhoneg) lavreg = trousers

Etymology unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cor = ale, beer
coref = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Hound Dogs

Words for dog in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kū = dog, wolf
Gaulish cuna = dog
Primitive Irish ᚉᚒᚅᚐ (cuna) = hound, wolf
Old Irish (Goídelc) [kuː] = dog
Irish (Gaeilge) [kuː] = dog, hound, greyhound; wolf; hero, champion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [kuː] = dog, canine
Manx (Gaelg) coo [kuː] = dog, cur, hound, wolf-dog
Proto-Brythonic ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ci / ki = dog
Welsh (Cymraeg) ci [kiː] = dog, hound, cur
Old Cornish ci = dog
Cornish (Kernewek) ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Breton ci / qui = dog
Breton (Brezhoneg) ki [kiː] = dog

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog), which is also the root of the English words hound and canine [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) madrad, matrad = dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) matad = common dog, cur
Irish (Gaeilge) madra [ˈmˠad̪ˠɾˠə] / madadh [ˈmˠad̪ˠə / ˈmˠad̪ˠu] = dog, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) madadh [madəɣ] = dog, mastiff
Manx (Gaelg) moddey [ˈmɔːðə] = dog, tyke
Welsh (Cymraeg) madyn / madog = fox

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) gagar [ɡaɣər] = beagle, hunting dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gadar = beagle, hunting dog
Irish (Gaeilge) gadhar [ɡəiɾˠ] = (hunting) dog, harrier, beagle, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gadhar [gɤ.ər] = lurcher, mastiff, greyhound

Etymology: from the Old Norse gagarr [source].

Proto-Celtic *kulēnos = whelp
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuilén [ˈkulʲeːn] = puppy, cub, kitten
Irish (Gaeilge) coiléan [kɪˈlʲaːn̪ˠ] = pup, cub, whelp; youth, scion; trickster
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuilean [kulan] = puppy, whelp; cub; seal pup; darling, dear; short/small bone
Manx (Gaelg) quallian = puppy
Welsh (Cymraeg) colwyn [kiː] = whelp, puppy, cub; lap-dog; spaniel
Old Cornish coloin = puppy
Cornish (Kernewek) kolen [ˈkɔlɪn] = puppy, cub
Breton (Brezhoneg) kolen = puppy, fawn, rabbit

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Irish (Gaeilge) cana [ˈkanˠə] = cub, whelp; bardic poet of fourth order
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cana [kanə] = puppy, whelp
Welsh (Cymraeg) cenau / cenaw = cub, whelp, puppy, kitten; son, descendant, scion, young warrior; knave, imp, rascal; catkin, cat’s tail

Etymology: possibly from the Latin canis (dog), from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog) [source], or from the Proto-Celtic *kanawo (young animal).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Irish Wolfhounds