Trousers, Socks and Sites

Words for trousers, socks, sites and related words in Celtic languages.

Red Trousers

Proto-Celtic *ɸlātrom = flat position
Old Irish (Goídelc) láthar [ˈl͈aːθar] = arrangement, disposition
láthraid [ˈl͈aːθrɨðʲ] = to arrange, to dispose
Irish (Gaeilge) láthair [ˈl̪ˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈl̪ˠæhəɾʲ] = place, spot, site, location; presence
as láthair = absent
faoi láthair = at present
i láthair = present
láithreach = ruined site, ruin, trace; imprint; present (tense)
láithreacht = presence
láithreán = piece of ground, place, site; ruined, vacated site; floor, space; set
láithreog = small site; trace, mark; small well-built girl
láithrigh = to present oneself, appear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làthair [l̪ˠaː.ɪrʲ] = presence, venue
an làthair = present, here, in attendance; extant; in existence
neo-làthair = absent
neo-làthaireachd = absence
làthaireach = present
làthaireachd = presence; attendance; atmosphere
uile-làthaireachd = omnipresence
Manx (Gaelg) laaragh = centric(al), stage, centre, venue, site
emshir-laaragh = present tense
neuaaragh, assaaragh = absent
ooilley-laaragh = ubiquitous
Proto-Brythonic *lọdr = leg covering
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llauder, llahudyr, llawdyr, llodr = trousers, breeches, hose
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawdr [ˈɬaːu̯dr] = trousers, breeches, hose
llawdrog, llodrog = wearing breeches, bedraggled
llawdrwisg = breeches
llawdrwr, llodrydd, llodrwr = breeches-maker
llaesu llawdr = to undo one’s trousers (to ease oneself)
Old Cornish loder = sock
Cornish (Kernewek) lodrik = sock
Middle Breton louzr = sock
Breton (Brezhoneg) loer = sock, (trouser) leg

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *pleh₂- (flat) [source].

From the same PIE root we also get Celtic words for hand, from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand) [source], which was borrowed from Old Irish into Old Norse and became lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) in Faroese [source].

Words for floor and ground in Celtic languages also come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Celtic *ɸlārom (floor) [source].

English words from the same PIE root include floor, palm, piano, plain, plan and plane, and also Poland [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bríste [ˈbʲɾʲiːʃtʲə] = trousers; breeching (of harness); roe (of pollock)
brístín = panties, knickers
fobhríste = underpants
forbhríste = overalls
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) briogais [brʲigɪʃ] = trousers, breeches
briogais-ghlùine = shorts, plus fours
briogais-ghoirid, briogais-bheag = shorts
briogais-shnàimh = swimming trunks
Manx (Gaelg) breeçhyn = breeches
breeçhyn glioonagh = knee breeches
breeçhyn markee = riding breeches
Welsh (Cymraeg) brits(h) = breeches
britis pen-(g)lin = knee-breeches
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties

Etymology: from the English breeches, from the Middle English brech(e), brek (breeches), from the Old English brēċ (underpants), from the Proto-Germanic *brōkiz, from *brōks (leggings, pants, trousers; rear end, rump) the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (to break, crack, split) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) triubhas = closs-fitting shorts
Irish (Gaeilge) triús = (pair of) trousers, trews
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) triubhas [tru.əs] = trousers, trews
Manx (Gaelg) troosyn = slacks, pants, trews, tights, trouser, knickers
troosyn çhionn = pantaloons
troosyn giarey = short trousers
troosyn markee = jodhpurs
Welsh (Cymraeg) trywsus, trywser, trowsus [ˈtrou̯sɨ̞s/ˈtrou̯sɪs] = trousers, breeches, knickers, panties
trywsus bach = shorts, short trouserse, knickerbockers
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties
bragoù = trousers

Etymology (Welsh): from the English trousers, from the Middle Irish triubhas (trousers, trews) of uncertain origin [source]. The English word trews (trousers, especially if close fitting and tartan) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) lavrek = trousers
lavrek byghan = briefs, underpants
lavrek jin = jeans
lavrek kott = short
Breton (Brezhoneg) lavreg = trousers

Etymology unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cor = ale, beer
coref = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Hound Dogs

Words for dog in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kū = dog, wolf
Gaulish cuna = dog
Primitive Irish ᚉᚒᚅᚐ (cuna) = hound, wolf
Old Irish (Goídelc) [kuː] = dog
Irish (Gaeilge) [kuː] = dog, hound, greyhound; wolf; hero, champion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [kuː] = dog, canine
Manx (Gaelg) coo [kuː] = dog, cur, hound, wolf-dog
Proto-Brythonic ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ci / ki = dog
Welsh (Cymraeg) ci [kiː] = dog, hound, cur
Old Cornish ci = dog
Cornish (Kernewek) ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Breton ci / qui = dog
Breton (Brezhoneg) ki [kiː] = dog

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog), which is also the root of the English words hound and canine [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) madrad, matrad = dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) matad = common dog, cur
Irish (Gaeilge) madra [ˈmˠad̪ˠɾˠə] / madadh [ˈmˠad̪ˠə / ˈmˠad̪ˠu] = dog, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) madadh [madəɣ] = dog, mastiff
Manx (Gaelg) moddey [ˈmɔːðə] = dog, tyke
Welsh (Cymraeg) madyn / madog = fox

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) gagar [ɡaɣər] = beagle, hunting dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gadar = beagle, hunting dog
Irish (Gaeilge) gadhar [ɡəiɾˠ] = (hunting) dog, harrier, beagle, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gadhar [gɤ.ər] = lurcher, mastiff, greyhound

Etymology: from the Old Norse gagarr [source].

Proto-Celtic *kulēnos = whelp
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuilén [ˈkulʲeːn] = puppy, cub, kitten
Irish (Gaeilge) coiléan [kɪˈlʲaːn̪ˠ] = pup, cub, whelp; youth, scion; trickster
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuilean [kulan] = puppy, whelp; cub; seal pup; darling, dear; short/small bone
Manx (Gaelg) quallian = puppy
Welsh (Cymraeg) colwyn [kiː] = whelp, puppy, cub; lap-dog; spaniel
Old Cornish coloin = puppy
Cornish (Kernewek) kolen [ˈkɔlɪn] = puppy, cub
Breton (Brezhoneg) kolen = puppy, fawn, rabbit

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Irish (Gaeilge) cana [ˈkanˠə] = cub, whelp; bardic poet of fourth order
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cana [kanə] = puppy, whelp
Welsh (Cymraeg) cenau / cenaw = cub, whelp, puppy, kitten; son, descendant, scion, young warrior; knave, imp, rascal; catkin, cat’s tail

Etymology: possibly from the Latin canis (dog), from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog) [source], or from the Proto-Celtic *kanawo (young animal).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Irish Wolfhounds

Pigs

Words for pig and related beasts in Celtic languages:

Pigs

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mokkus = pig
*mokk(w)yatis = swineherd
Old Irish (Goídelc) mucc [muk] = pig, sow; a war engine: a shed to cover sappers
muccaid [ˈmukiðʲ] = swineherd
muccaidecht [ˈmukiðʲext] = herding swine
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) muc, mucc = pig, sow
muc(c)ach = pertaining to swine
muc(c)aid = swineherd
muc(c)aidecht = herding swine
muc(c)álach = a brood or litter of pigs
muc(c)lach = piggery
Irish (Gaeilge) muc [mˠʊk] = pig; heap, bank, drift; scowl; sow
mucachán = (of person) pig, swine
mucaire = slovenly worker
mucaireacht = slovenly work
mucais = pit sty; dirty, slovely person; hogback
muicí = swineherd
muicíocht = swine-herding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muc [muxɡ] = pig, sow
mucag [muxgag] = little pig, piggy, (rose)hip
mucaidh = swineherd
mucaireachd = swineherding, herding pigs
muicfheoil [muçgʲɔl] = pork
muc-mhara [muxgˈvarə] = whale
muc-stigean = porpoise
Manx (Gaelg) muc = hog, swine, pig, grunter
muclagh = piggery, pigsty, sty
muick = swine
bochilley muickey = swineherd
muc hallooin = aardvark
muc varrey = whale, porpoise
Proto-Brythonic *mox = pig
*möxjad = swineherd
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) moch = pigs, swine
mochduy = pigsty
mochawg = piggish, swinish
meichiat, meicheit, meichad = swineherd
Welsh (Cymraeg) moch [moːχ] = pigs, swine, hogs; greedy, dirty, lazy, drunk, or immoral persons; small pumps used underground in coal-mines to remove water
mochyn [ˈmɔχɨ̞n / ˈmoːχɪn] = pig, swine, hog
mocha, mochi, mochian = to behave like a pig, wallow, grunt, defile, sully
mochach = contemptible or swinish people
mochaidd = swinish, filthy, dirty, vile, immoral, greedy
mochdra = filthiness, dirtines
mochdy = pigsty
mochgig = pork, ham, bacon
mochog = piggish, swinish
mochwr = swineherd, pig-dealer, untidy workman
meich(i)ad = swineherd
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) moch, môch = pigs
mochyn = pig
Cornish (Kernewek) mogh [mɔːx / moːʰ] = pigs, swine
Old Breton moch = pigs, swine
mochiat = swineherd
Middle Breton (Brezonec) moch = pigs, swine
Breton (Brezhoneg) moc’h [moːχ] = pigs, swine
moc’haer = swineherd

Etymology: borrowed from a non-Indo-European substrate language. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include mocke (a slovenly woman) in Middle Dutch and moche (sow, female pig) in Middle High German [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cullach [ˈkul͈ax] = boar, stallion
muccullach = boar
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cullach, colach = boar, stallion
Irish (Gaeilge) collach [kəˈl̪ˠɑx / ˈkɔl̪ˠəx / ˈkʌl̪ˠax] = boar (male pig); male crab; crude, fleshy, person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cullach = mature male (unneutered) animal (such as boars, hogs, etc)
Manx (Gaelg) collagh = boar, male, stallion
collagh muc = boar (domestic)
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceilliog = having testicles, uncastrated, entire, male
Middle Breton (Brezonec) callouch, qalloc’h, calloc’h = entire, standard, stallion
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalloc’h = entire

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *kalljo- (testicle).

Proto-Celtic *t(w)orkos = boar (pig)
Old Irish (Goídelc) torc [tork] = (wild) boar, chieften, hero
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) torc = (wild) boar, chieftan, hero
Irish (Gaeilge) torc [t̪ˠɔɾˠk / t̪ˠʌɾˠk] = (wild) boar, hog; portly, corpulent person, man of substance
torcán = little, young boar; small corpulent person
torc allta = wild boar
torc-chú = boar hound
torcshleá = boar-spear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) torc = [tɔr̪ˠxg] = boar, hog
torc-nimhe, torc-fiadhaich = wild boar
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tỽrch, twrch, tyrch = hog, (wild) boar, mole
Welsh (Cymraeg) twrch [tʊrχ] = hog, (wild) boar, mole
twrch (y) coed = woodlouse
twrch daear = mole, badger
tyrchu, tyrchio = to burrow, dig (up), root up, nuzzle, rummage; to catch (moles)
tyrchaidd = hoglike, hoggish, swinish, greedy
tyrchwr, trychydd = mole-catcher, bulldozer
Old Cornish torch = hog
Middle Cornish (Cernewc) torch = hog
Cornish (Kernewek) torgh = hog, boar
Old Breton torch = boar
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tourch = boar, ram; a debauched man
Breton (Brezhoneg) tourc’h = boar, macho, debauched

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *twerḱ- (to cut) [source]. English words from the same PIE root include trunk, truculent and sarcasm [source].

Proto-Celtic *sukkos = pig
Old Irish (Goídelc) socc = pig, sow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) suic, socc, soc = snout, ploughshare
Irish (Gaeilge) soc [sˠɔk] = sow
socach = nozzled, snouted, beaked, pointed
socadán = person with pointed face, nosy person, interloper, busybody
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) soc [sɔxg] = beak, snout, sockt, ploughshare, short, chubby person
socach [sɔxgəx] = snouted, beaked
Manx (Gaelg) sock = bow, nose, snout, tow; ploughshare, nozzle
Proto-Brythonic *hux = pig
*sux = ploughshare
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwch [huːχ] = sow, pig, swine, dirty creature
Old Cornish hoch = pig, hog
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hoch = pig, hog
hochwayu = hog-spear
Cornish (Kernewek) hogh = hog, pig, swine
hogh Gyni = Guinea pig
hoghwuwa = to pigstick
hoghwuwans = pig sticking
Old Breton hoch = sow
Middle Breton (Brezonec) houch, houc’h, hoh = sow
oc’hal, hoc’ha, hoc’he = to grunt, oink
oc’hellât, houc’hellat = to burrow, dig
hoch-goez, houch guez = wild boar
oh mor, hoc’h-mor = porpoise
houc’h-tourc’h = boar
Breton (Brezhoneg) houc’h = pig (male, often neutered)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European suH- (pig, hog, swine). The English word hog was possibly borrowed into Old English from Welsh. Other words from the same Proto-Celtic root include socket in English, and soc (ploughshare) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸorkos = piglet
Gaulish *orkos = pork, piglet
Old Irish (Goídelc) orc [ork] = piglet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) orc = young pig
Irish (Gaeilge) arc(án) = piglet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) orc [ɔr̪ˠxg] = young animal, offspring (esp. piglet or sheep); whale (archaic)
orcan [ɔr̪ˠxgan] = piglet, young pig
Manx (Gaelg) ark = young pig, piglet, sucking pig
Pictish orc = piglet, young pig

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European pórḱos (piglet), which is also the root of the English word farrow (a litter of piglets), and the German word Ferkel (piglet) [source].

The name Orkney comes from the Old Norse Orkneyjar (seal islands), from orkn (seal) and ey (island). It is thought that Norwegian settlers reinterpreted the original Pictish tribal name element orc (piglet) [source].

Proto-Celtic *banwos = pig
Gaulish Banuus, Banuo = pig
Old Irish (Goídelc) banb [ban͈v] = piglet, young pig
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) banb, bainb = young pig
Irish (Gaeilge) banbh [ˈbˠanˠəvˠ] = piglet; Ace of Hearts
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) banb, bainb = young pig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) banbh [banav] = young pig, piglet
banbhan [banavan] = small piglet
banbhradh [banavrəɣ] = herd of piglets
Manx (Gaelg) bannoo = sucking pig, piglet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banv = (young) pig, piglet
Welsh (Cymraeg) banw = (young) pig, piglet, weaned pig, hog; young animal
Old Cornish baneu = sow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) banb = sow
Cornish (Kernewek) banow = sow
Middle Breton (Brezonec) banv = sow, pig
Breton (Brezhoneg) banv = mother sow

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a non-Indo-European language [source].

Proto-Brythonic *porxell = piglet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) porchell, parchell = (young) pig, piglet
Welsh (Cymraeg) porchell [ˈpɔrχɛɬ] = sucking-pig, piglet, little pig, porker, pig, swine, hog
Old Cornish porchel = young pig, piglet
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) porhel = young pig, piglet
Cornish (Kernewek) porghel = young pig, piglet
porghellik = piglet, sucking pig
Old Breton porchill = piglet
Middle Breton (Brezonec) porhell, porchell, porchel = piglet
porchelles = sow
Breton (Brezhoneg) porc’helleg = piglet

Etymology: from the Late Latin porcellus (piglet), from the Latin porcus (pig), from the Proto-Italic *porkos (pig) from the Proto-Indo-European pórḱos (piglet) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include varken (pig) in Dutch, pork in English, and porc (pig, pork) in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Cattle

Words for cattle, cow, bull and calf in Celtic languages.

Highland cows

Proto-Celtic *bāus = cow
*bow = cow
Celtiberian boustom = stable (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [boː] = ox, cow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) = ox, cow
bóaire = stock-master, stock-owner (“cow-noble”)
bólacht = stock of cattle
bómlacht = cow’s milk
búarach = owner of cows
Irish (Gaeilge) [bˠoː] = cow
bó mhara = sea-cow, manatee
bó shamhraidh = ladybird
bó-aire = cattle lord, cattle owner
bódóir = cow-doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [boː] = cow
bò b(h)ainne = dair/milk cow
boineag = small cow
bòthach = pertaining to or abounding in cows
Manx (Gaelg) booa = cow
booa vluight = dairy cow
boin = very little cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉ = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buv, bu, buw = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) bu = cow, ox, head of cattle (as a standard of value in the Welsh laws)
buach = cowherd, rustic, wretched creature
biw = cow, cattle, horned cattle
Middle Cornish biuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bu = cow
Breton (Brezhoneg) bu = cow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle). The old Galician word busto (enclosed pasture, a herd of cattle) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Celtiberian [source].

Proto-Celtic *boukkā = cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉx = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buvch, buwch = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) buwch [bɨu̯χ / bɪu̯χ] = cow
buwch y dwfr = hippopotamus
buwch goch Duw = ladybird
buwchaidd = cow-like, pertaining to cattle, bovine, uncivilized, stolid
buwchan = small cow, young cow, heffer
buwchfrechu = to vaccinate (with cowpox)
buwchfrechiad = (cowpox) vaccination
buwchol = bovine
Old Cornish buch = cow
Middle Cornish beuch, buch, beuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bugh [biʊx / bɪwh] = cow
bugh godra = dairy cow
bughik = little cow
bughik Dhuw = ladybird
bughvowes = cowgirl
bughwas = cowboy
Breton (Brezhoneg) buoc’h [ˈbɥoːχ / ˈbyːɔχ] = cow
buoc’han = ladybird
buoc’hken = cowhide

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *bāus (cow), the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tarwos = bull
Gaulish taruos = bull
Old Irish (Goídelc) tarb [tarv] = bull
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tarb = bull
Irish (Gaeilge) tarbh [ˈt̪ˠaɾˠuː / ˈt̪ˠaɾˠu] = bull
tarbhadóir = toreador
tarbhán = bull-calf, young bull
tarbhánta = bull-like, massive, powerful
tarbhántacht = bullishness
tarbhghadhar = bulldog
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tarbh [tarav] = bull, Taurus
tarbh-chù = bulldog
tarbh-nathrach (neimhe) = dragonfly
tarbh-thonn = mighty wave
tarbhach = like a bull, hefty, chunky
tarbhan = small bull
tarbhan-dè = butterfly
Manx (Gaelg) tarroo = bull, Taurus
taarroo oaldey = bison, buffalo
tarroo-choo = bulldog
tarroo-feeaih = stag
Proto-Brythonic *tarw = bull
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tarỼ, tarv = bull
Welsh (Cymraeg) tarw [ˈtaru / ˈtaːru] = bull, uncastrated male ox, papal bull, Taurus (sign of the zodiac); valiant leader, fierce hero
tarw dur = bulldozer
tarwgi = bulldog
Old Cornish tarow = bull
Cornish (Kernewek) tarow = bull
Old Breton taruu = bull
Middle Breton taru = bull
Breton (Brezhoneg) tarv = bull

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *táwros (wild bull, aurochs), which possibly comes from or was borrowed into Proto-Semtic as *ṯawr- (bull, ox), from which we get ثَوْر (ṯawr – bull, steer, ox, Taurus) in Arabic [Source].

The Old Irish Irish word for bull was borrowed into Old Norse as tarfr, which became tarvur (bull, Taurus, womanizer) in Faroese, and tarfur (bull) in Icelandic [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include Taurus and steer in English, taureau (bull, Taurus) in French, toro (bull) in Spanish, and touro (bull) in Portuguese [Source].

Proto-Celtic *laygos / *lāɸigos = calf
Old Irish (Goídelc) lóeg [l͈oːi̯ɣ] = calf, favourite, darling
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lóeg = calf, favourite, darling, young deer
Irish (Gaeilge) lao [l̪ˠeː / l̪ˠiː] = (young) calf
laoidín = tiny calf
laofheoil = veal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) laogh [l̪ˠɯːɣ] = calf, kid (of deer), fawn, term of endearment for a child
laoghach = pertaining to or abounding in calves
laoghan = little calf
Manx (Gaelg) lheiy [ax] = calf
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lo, lloe, llo = calf
Welsh (Cymraeg) llo [ɬoː] = calf, bullock, simpleton, dolt
llo(e)aidd = calf-like
lloeaf, lloeo, lloea = to calve
Old Cornish loch = calf
Middle Cornish) leauh, loch = calf
Cornish (Kernewek) leugh [løːx / leːx / lɛwh] = calf
Breton (Brezhoneg) leue [ˈlø.e] = calf

Etymology: a diminutuve of the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂p- (cattle) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bearach = heifer, young cow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) biorach [birəx] = a weaned but not fully mature calf or foal (up to 2 years); anti-suckling device, sucking preventer, weaner
Welsh (Cymraeg) bustach / bustych = bullock, ox, steer (possibly related to the above words)

Etymology: from the Old Irish berach [ˈbʲerax] (pointed, sharp; having pointed ears, horned), from bir (stake, spit, point; spear, spike) & -ach (related to, having, characterised by, prone to) [source].

Proto-Brythonic *oti̯on- = bullock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eydyon, eidon = ox, steer, bullock
Welsh (Cymraeg) eidion = domestic male of the bovine family, ox, steer, bullock, neat
Old Cornish odion = bullock
Middle Cornish udzheon, odgan = bullock
Cornish (Kernewek) ojyon = ox
Middle Breton eugenn = bullock. ox
Breton (Brezhoneg) ejon = bullock. ox
Proto-Celtic *anderā = young woman
Gaulish anderon = heifer
Old Irish (Goídelc) ainder [ˈan͈ʲdʲər] = married woman; virgin, maiden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ander [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman
Irish (Gaeilge) ainnir [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman (poetic); attractive woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ainnir [an̠ʲɪrʲ] = maiden, virgin; nymph; marriageable woman; young woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) anneir = heifer
Welsh (CymraeG) anner [ˈanɛr] = heifer
Old Cornish annoer = heifer
Cornish (Kernewek) annor = heifer
Middle Breton annoer = heifer
Breton (Brezhoneg) annoar = heifer

Etymology: possibly related to Basque andere (lady, woman) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Streets

Words for street in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) sráit [sraːdʲ] = street, road, path, way
Irish (Gaeilge) sráid [sˠɾˠɑːdʲ / sˠɾˠæːdʲ] = street, level (surfaced) ground around house, village
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sràid [sdraːdʲ] = street, lane
Manx (Gaelg) straid = street, farmyard
Welsh (Cymraeg) stryd = street, (main) road, highway
Cornish (Kerneweg) stret [strɛ:t / stre:t] = street
Breton (Brezhoneg) straed = alley

Etymology: from the Old Norse stræti (street) or the Old English strǣt (road, street), from the Proto-Germanic *strātō (street), from the Late Latin strāta (a paved road) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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Fists, Palms, Hands & Arms

Words for fist, palm, hand, arm and related things in Celtic languages.

palm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā = palm, hand
Old Irish (Goídelc) lám [l͈aːṽ] = hand, arm, prowess, accomplishment, power
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) lám = hand, arm, prowess, accomplishment, power
lámann, lámand, lámínd = glove, gauntlet, sleeve
lámannán, lamannan = bladder
Irish (Gaeilge) lámh [l̪ˠɑːvˠ / l̪ˠæːw] = hand, arm, handle, signature, measure (of horses)
lámhach = skill in handling, in casting, dexterity
lámhadóir = handler
lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhaíocht = helping hand, subscription
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmh [l̪ˠaːv] = hand, arm, handle
làmhainn [l̪ˠaːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhchaireach = handy
làmhcharach = dexterous, handy
làmhchran, làmhrachan = handle
làmhnan = handyman
làmhadh = pawing, handling, groping
Manx (Gaelg) laue [læu] = hand, handful, foreleg, grasp (of oar), arm
lauee = dexterous, handy, useful, versatile, manual
lauean = glove
laueys = alacrity, elbow grease, skilfulness, industy
Proto-Brythonic *lọβ̃ [ˈlɔːβ̃] = palm, hand
Old Welsh lau = hand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lav, law, llav, llaw = hand
llaw agor, llawegor, llaw egor = generous, bountiful
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaw [ɬaːu̯ / ɬau̯] = hand; authority, control, rule, management, power; ownership, possession; influence; agency, instrumentality, part; guardianship, keeping, custody, care, protection; side, direction, position; skill, touch
llawagor, llawegor = generous, bountiful, liberal, open-handed, creeping thistle, water-pepper
llawaid = handful
llawan = little hand
Old Cornish lof = hand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lau, lef, lof, luef = hand
lofgurchel = utensil
Cornish (Kernewek) leuv [lœ:v / le:v] = hand
leuvdosa = to massage
leuvdosans = massage
leuvherdhya = to hand-off
leuvvedhegel = surgical
leuvvedhek, leuvvedhoges = surgeon
leuvwelen = baton
Old Breton lom = hand
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lau = hand
Breton (Brezhoneg) lav [lav] = feathered hand

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand). The Faroese word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old Norse lámr (hand, arm) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bostā = palm, fist
Gaulish *bostyā = palm, fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) bos / bas = palm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bas, bos, bass = palm of the hand
basach = having hoofs or claws
baslach = handful
Irish (Gaeilge) bos = palm (of hand); handful; slap; flat end, blade
bosach = bladed, flat-footed
bosachán = flat-footed person
bosaíl = patting, flat-footedness
boslach = handful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bas [bas] = palm (of hand), lower end of a shinty stick, eye (of a fishing hook)
bas-bhualadh = clapping of hands, applause
baslachadh= clapping, cupping (in one’s hands)
basgar = applause, skirl (in music)
baslach = handful, palmful, baptism
Manx (Gaelg) bass = palm, flat of hand, blade of oar, scale pan, bass
bassag = backhander, clap, clout, pat, slap, smack
bassey = applause, clap, clapping
basslagh = double handful, enough to cover palm, palmful
Proto-Brythonic *bos [ˈbos] = hand
Old Welsh bos = palm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bos = palm
Welsh (Cymraeg) bos = palm (of the hand), unit of length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) boz = hollow of the hand
Breton (Brezhoneg) boz [ˈboːs] = hollow of the hand

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷésdos (branch) [source]. The Middle Latin word bostia (small box, reliquaire was borrowed from the Gaulish *bostyā, and became bostellus (bushel), the root of the French word boisseau (bushel, hollow cylinder), and the English word bushel [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) rig [r͈ʲiɣ] = forearm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) rig = forearm from wrist to elbow
Irish (Gaeilge) [ɾˠiː] = forearm
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruighe [r̪ˠujə] = plain, flat ground, (at base of a mountain), shieling area, forearm
ruigheadh = laying out a body, shrouding, stretching out
ruigheachas = tussle, armwrestling
ruigheachdail = accessible
Manx (Gaelg) roih = arm, forearm

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish *reg (to stretch) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) brac, brach = arm, hand
bracann, bracand = sleeve
braccaille = glove
Irish (Gaeilge) brac = arm (literary), bracket
bracach = brachial
bracaíl = brachiation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brac [braxg] = arm, curve (of a breaking wave), branch (of antlers), deer (poetic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ureich, ureych, braich = arm
Welsh (Cymraeg) braich [brai̯χ] = arm, care, assistance, support, power, might, strength, forelimb of animal, wing, headland, creek
braich olwyn = spoke (of wheel)
braich o’r môr, braich o fôr = arm of the sea, inlet
braich ym mraich = arm-in-arm
Old Cornish bregh = arm
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) brech, brêch, breh = arm
brechol = sleeve
Cornish (Kernewek) bregh [brɛ:x /bre:ʰ] = arm
breghel = sleeve
breghellik = bracelet
Middle Breton (Brezonec) brech, breach, bræch = hand, paw
Breton (Brezhoneg) brec’h = hand
brec’had = handful
brec’hata = to grasp round the waist, embrace

Etymology: from Latin bracchium (hand). Words from the same Latin root include brachium (upper arm) in English, bras (arm) in French, brazo (arm, branch, (tree) limb) in Spanish, and braccio (arm) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *durnos = fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorn = fist
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorn, dornn, dord = hand, fist, possession, handle
dornach = generous-handed
dornán = fistful, handful, sheaf
dornasc = bracelet
dornóc = glove, mitten
Irish (Gaeilge) dorn [d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch; fistful, small quantity; handle, grip
dornáil = boxing
dornálaí = boxer
dornán = fistful, handful, small quantity or number, small handle, grip
dornóg = mitten
dornúil = pugilistic
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dòrn [dɔːr̪ˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch, hilt, handle
dòrnach = fistful, boxer, pugilist
dòrnadaireachd = boxing, pugilism
dòrnan = small fist, handful, grip,
dòrnag = fist-sized pebble/stone, oar handle, gauntlet
dòrnair = boxer, pugilist
dòrnlach = handful, batch
Manx (Gaelg) doarn = fist, pad, sword handle, grip
doarnane = haft, hilt, spoke, handle, hand grip, fistful
doarney = box, boxing, buffet
doarneyr = boxer
doarneyrys = boxing (match), fighting
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) durn, dwrn,, dyrn = fist, hand, paw, hilt, handle
Welsh (Cymraeg) dwrn = fist, hand, paw, hilt, handle, haft, pommel, knob
dwrn caead = clenched fist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dorn = fist, hand, handle, hilt
Cornish (Kernewek) dorn [dɔrn] = fist, hand, handle
dorna = to bash, beat, punch, strike, thrash
dornas = fistful, handful
dornbel = handball
dornel = manual
dornlyver, dornlever = handbook
dornskrif = manuscript
dornweyth = handicraft
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dornn, dorn, dourn = hand
dornat, dournat, dournad = handle, handful
dornaff, dournaff = to beat, hit
dornec = large-handed
Breton (Brezhoneg) dorn [ˈdɔʁn] = hand, fist
dornad = handle, handful
dornañ = to beat, hit
dornek = large-handed

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Happy & fortunate

Words for happy, forunate and related things in Celtic languages.

have a happy weekend!

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sognāwos = well-grown
Old Irish (Goídelc) sona [ˈsona] = happy, fortunate
sonaide = prosperous, fortunate, happy, lucky
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sona = prosperous, fortunate, lucky
sonaide = prosperous, fortunate, happy, lucky
sonaige = happiness
sonann = properous land
Irish (Gaeilge) sona [ˈsˠʊn̪ˠə] = happy, lucky, fortunate
sonaídeach = easy, untroubled
sonas = happiness, good luck, good fortune
sonasach = happy, lucky, fortunate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sona [sɔnə] = content, happy
sonas [sɔnəs] = happiness, contentment
Manx (Gaelg) sonney = affluent, lucky, fortunate, happy

Etymology: from Proto-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same root include gnomon (a pointer on a sundail), ignore, noble, normal, glory in English, the Irish word gnúis (face) in Irish, gnùis (face) in Scottish Gaelic, and gnis (jaw, chin, face) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *lowenos = merry, joyful
Gaulish *Lawenos = name
Proto-Brythonic *llowen = happy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llauen, llewyn, llawen = merry, jovial, glad, cheerful, happy
llawena, llawenu = to make happy, gladden, cheer, delight
llawenhau, llywenhav, lawenhäu = to rejoice, be/make joyful
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawen [ˈɬau̯ɛn / ˈɬau̯an] = merry, jovial, glad, cheerful, happy, blithe, joyful, joyous, jubilant; bringing happiness, pleasant, delightful
llawenaf, llawenau = to make happy, gladden, cheer, delight
llawenaidd = glad, cheerful, happy, pleasant, delightful
llawender = gladness, happiness, joy
llawenhaf, llawenhau = to rejoice, be joyful, be/make glad, be joyous, exult, be cheerful, gladden, cheer (up), hearten
llawenol = glad, cheerful, happy, jubilant
Old Cornish louen = happy
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lowen = glad, joyful, merry
loweneder = joy, mirth
lowene, lowené = joy, bliss, gladness, mirth
lowenec, lowenek = glad, joyful, merry
lowenhe, lowenhé = to cause, rejoice, make/be glad, gladden, comfort
Cornish (Kernewek) lowen [‘lɔwɛn / ‘lu:ɐn] = glad, happy
lowenek [lɔ’wɛnɛk / lə’wɛnɐk] = cheerful, gay, happy, joyful, merry
lowena = bliss, cheer, happiness, joy
lowender = mirth
lowenek = cheerful, happy, joyful, merry
lowenhe = to rejoice, delight, make happy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) louen, laouen = happy, cheerful, cordial, warm
louenhat, louenhaff = to become more cheerful, rejoice
Breton (Brezhoneg) laouen [ˈlɔwːɛn] = happy; willingly, gladly
laouenaat = to rejoice, satisfy
laouenek = friendly, convival

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂w- (to seize, gain, benefit, prize) [source]. Words from the same roots include golud (wealth, riches) in Welsh, luach (value, price, reward) in Irish, lucre and galore in English, and lön (reward, salary, wage) in Swedish [source].

The Welsh word hapus [ˈhapɨ̞s/ˈhapɪs] (happy, cheerful, blessed, satisfactory, fortunate, successful, prosperous) comes from English hap (chance, fortune, luck, fortuitous event), from Middle English hap(pe) (chance, luck, fortune), from Old English ġehæp (fit, convenient) and/or Old Norse happ (chance, good luck) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic