Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rotten Fragrance

Today we’re looking at the words for rotten and related things in Celtic languages.

Rotten wood

Proto-Celtic *bragnos = rotten
Gaulish brennos = rotten
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) brén [bʲrʲeːn] = foul, putrid, rotten, stinking
Irish (Gaeilge) bréan [bʲɾʲiːa̯nˠ / bʲɾʲeːnˠ] = foul, putrid, rotten; to pollute, putrefy
bréanlach = filthy place, cesspool
bréanóg = refuse heap
bréantachán = stinker
bréantas = rottenness, stench, filth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breun [brʲeːn] = foetid, putrid, disgusting, filthy, nasty, stinking
breunlach = sinking bog
breunachd = corruption, rottenness
breunan = dunghill, dirty person, dirty/smelly object, crabbit/grumpy person, grouch
breunad = degree of foetidness/putridness, degree of disgustingness/filthiness/nastiness, degree of stink
breuntas = stench, stink, putrefaction, putridness
Manx (Gaelg) breinn = foetid, loathsome, malodorous, nasty, offensive, pestilential, putrid, rancid, rotten, smelly, stinking
breinnaghey = to become smelly, putrefy, taint, stink
Proto-Brythonic *braɨn = foul, stinking putrid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brean = rotten
Welsh (Cymraeg) braen [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = rotten, putrid, corrupt, mouldy, withered, fragile; rot, putrefaction, corruption, decay
braen(i)ad = rotting, decomposition, rottenness, putridness
braenu = to rot, putrefy, make/become corrupt, become mouldy
braenedig = rotten, putrefied, corrupt, festering, gangrenous, mouldy, wounded
Cornish (Kernewek) breyn = putrid, rotten
breyna = to decay, rot
breynans = decay
breynder = rot
Middle Breton brein = rotten
Breton (Brezhoneg) brein = rotten
breinadur = corruption
breinañ = to rot, decay
breinidigezh = putrefaction

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreHg- (to smell, have a strong odour) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include flair, fragrant, and bray in English, and брезгать (to be fastidious/squeamish, to disdain) in Russian [source].

The Gaulish word brennos was borrowed into Vulgar Latin and ended up as brener (to trick, fool, hoodwink) in French, via the Old French bren (bran, filth, excrement). The English word bran comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Middle English bran(ne) / bren and the Old French bren [source].

The Galician word braña (mire, bog, marsh, moorland) is thought to come from the Proto-Celtic *bragnos, possibly via Celtiberian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sieving Riddles

Today we’re looking at the words for sieve and related things in Celtic languages.

Woman hands sieving flour

Proto-Celtic *krētros = sieve
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve, riddle
críatharach = marsh, morass, boggy wasteland
críathrad = act of winnowing, sifting, riddling
críathraid = sifts, riddles, spreads
Irish (Gaeilge) criathar [ˈcɾʲiəhəɾˠ / ˈcɾʲiːhəɾˠ] = sieve, riddle
criathach = pitted, perforated, swampy
criathrú = winnowing, sifting, honeycombing
criathradóir = winnower, sifter, maker of sieves
criathraigh = to sieve, winnow, riddle, sift, honeycomb
criathróir = animal surefooted on boggy ground
criathar meala = honeycomb
criathar mín = fine sieve
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criathar [krʲiə.ər] = riddle, sieve
criathar-tomhais = bushel (measure and implement)
criathar-garbh = riddle (implement)
criatharair [krʲiəhərɛrʲ] = sieve-maker
criathradh [krʲiarəɣ] = (act of) filtering
Manx (Gaelg) creear = sieve, riddle
creearey = sieve, pan, sift, riddle
creear meein = fine sieve
creear garroo = rough sieve
jannoo creear = to honeycomb
Proto-Brythonic *kruɨdr = wandering, sieve
Old Welsh cruitr = winnowing shovel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cruidir, crwydr = sieve
Welsh (Cymraeg) crwydr [ˈkrʰʊɨ̯dr̩ / ˈkrʰʊi̯dr̩] = a wandering, a roaming; misfortune, trouble, confusion, rout, dispersion; a straying, aberration, error; winnowing-fan, winnowing-shovel, sieve
crwydro = to wander, roam, stroll, gad about, stray, go astray, deviate, digress
crwydredig = wandering, vagrant, roving, stray
crwydro = barn, granary, farm building
crwydrwr = wanderer, vagrant, vagabond, rover, nomad
Old Cornish croider = sieve, riddle
Middle Cornish croider, crodar = sieve, riddle
Cornish (Kernewek) kroder = coarse sieve, strainer, riddle
kroder kroghen = bodhrán, hold-all
Old Breton croitir = sieve, riddle
Middle Breton croezr = sieve, riddle
Breton (Brezhoneg) krouer = sieve, riddle, screen
krouerañ = to sift, riddle, sieve
krouer liammoù = link generator
rakkroueriañ = pre-screening

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krey-trom (sieve) from *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include crime, crisis, riddle and secret in English, ceart (right, correct, true) in Irish, and crynu (to tremble, shake) and ergryn (horror, dread) in Welsh [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waterfalls

Today we’re looking at the words for waterfall and related things in Celtic languages.

IMGR8167-ed

Proto-Celtic *riyatros = waterfall
Old Irish (Goídelc) ríathor = torrent
Irish (Gaeilge) riathar = torrent (literary)
Old Welsh réátir = torrent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) raeadyr, raiader, rhaiadr = cataract, waterfall
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhaeadr [ˈr̥ʰeɨ̯.adr̩ / ˈr̥ʰei̯.adr̩] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, torrent
rhaeadru = to fall or pour in a cascade or waterfall, fall steeply, gush, flow, stream
rhaeadraidd = like a waterfall
rhaeadriad = the act of falling or flowing like a waterfall

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃reiH- (to flow) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ess = rapids, waterfall
Irish (Gaeilge) eas = waterfall, cascade, cataract; swift current, rapid
easach = having, abounding in waterfalls, cascading
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eas [es] = waterfall, cataract, cascade
easach [esəx] = abounding in waterfalls
easachan [esəxan] = small waterfall
easan [esan] = small waterfall; thin gruel
easgraich [esgrɪç] = torrent
easraich [esrɪç] = plunge pool, waterfall lake; bustle, commotion
eas muilinn = mill-race
con-eas = multiple waterfalls
poll-easa = plunge pool
Manx (Gaelg) eas = cascade, cataract, chute, shoot, waterfall
easan = small waterfall, small cataract
mwyllin roie’n eas = water mill

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ysgwt, ysgwd, ysgŵd = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) sgwd [skuːd] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pistill = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) pistyll = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)
pistyll yr ysgyfaint = trachea
Cornish (Kernewek) pistyl = little waterfall
pistylla = to spout

Etymology: possibly from the Latin pistillum (pestle), which is also the root of the English word pestle [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) dowrlam = waterfall
Breton (Brezhoneg) lamm-dour = waterfall

Etymology: from dowr / dour (water) and lam / lamm (leap).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Emptiness

Today we’re looking at the words for empty, soft and related things in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *wāstos = empty
Old Irish (Goídelc) fás = empty, vacant, deserted
fásaogod to empty, despoil
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fás = empty, vain, futile, vacant
Irish (Gaeilge) fás [fˠɑːsˠ / fˠaːsˠ] = waste, vacant, empty, void; wild, luxuriant
fásach = waste, desert; uncultivated, uninhabited region; empty, deserted place
fásaigh = to lay waste, leave uncultivated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fàs [faːs] = empty; barren, waste, uncultivated, fallow, desolate
fàsach = desert, wilderness, empty place
fàsaich = to depopulate, lay waste to a place, desolate
fàslach = hollow, void, cavity
fàslail = desolate, lonely, solitary
Manx (Gaelg) faase = feeble, weak; desolate, void, barren, infirm
faasagh = desert, desolate, waste place, wilderness
faaselagh = weakest part, poor part of lawn
faasoil = desert

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to leave, abandon) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) folam = empty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) folam, falam = empty, uninhabited, shallow, barren, destitute, vain, worthless
folma = emptiness
Irish (Gaeilge) folamh [ˈfˠɔl̪ˠəvˠ / ˈfˠaːl̪ˠə / ˈfˠɔlˠuː] = empty
folmhaigh = to empty, discharge, exhaust; purge, evacuate
folmhach empty, vacant, sapce, gap (between teeth)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) falamh [fal̪ˠəv] = empty, hollow, void
falamhachd = emptiness, voidness, vacancy, vacuum, void
falamhaich = to empty, void, evacuate
falamhaichte = emptied
Manx (Gaelg) follym = void, flat, shallow, barren, vacuous, waste, blank, empty, hollow, blank
folmaghey = to empty, void, hollow, vacate, deflate

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish lomm (bare, naked, smooth) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cúacca = empty
Proto-Brythonic *gwag = empty, vacant
Old Welsh guac = empty, desolate, vacant
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwac, gwag = empty, desolate, vacant
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwag [ɡwaːɡ] = empty, desolate, vacant, void, barren; meaningless, senseless, unsubstantial, frivolous, null and void, invalid
gwagedd = vanity, vainglory, conceit, empitness, unreality
gwagio = to empty, make empty, become empty
gwagle = empty place or space, vacuum, void, gap, chasm, space
Middle Cornish gwag = hungry, vain, void, vacant, at leisure; void, vacuum, hunger
Cornish (Kernewek) gwag = blank, empty, hollow, hungry, unfurnished, unoccupied, vacant
gwaga = to break into a cavity
gwagen = blank
gwagla = vacancy
gwagva = vacuum
gwakhe = to empty, vacate
Middle Breton goac = soft, tender
goacat = to soften
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwak = soft, tender
gwakaat = to soften
gwakadur = softening

Etymology: from the Vulgar Latin *vacus, from the Latin *vacuus (empty), from vacō (I am empty, void), from the Proto-Italic *wakos (empty), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to lack, empty) [source].

A Breton word for empty is goullo or gollo, the origins of which are not known.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Soft and Tender

Today we’re looking at the words for soft and tender and related things in Celtic languages.

soft

Proto-Celtic *buggos = soft, tender
Old Irish (Goídelc) boc = soft, gentle, tender
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) boc = soft, gentle, tender, tepid
Irish (Gaeilge) bog [bˠɔɡ / bˠʌɡ] (noun) = soft, tender, flabby, indulgent, lenient, mellow (voice), mild (weather), loose, lukewarm
bog (verb) = to soften, become soft, ease, warm, get milder, move, loosen, rock
bogach = soft, boggy ground
bogachar = softness, bogginess
bogadh = softening, easement, movement, stir
bogánta = soft, squelchy
bogearraí = software
an rud a fhaightear go bog caitear go bog é = easy come, easy go
tóg go bog é = take it easy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bog [boɡ] = flabby, soft, limp, pulpy; moist, marshy, boggy, slopp; foolish; damp, humid; indulgent; spiritless; flat (in music); lax (in linguistics)
bogach = bog, fen, marsh, swamp, morass, quagmire
bogachadh = wetting, steeping, moistening, mellowing, softening, swilling
bathar-bog = software
Manx (Gaelg) bog = soft, easy, tender, flabby, pulpy, slack, limp, moist, soft-hearted, callow
boggagh = to soften, steep
strong>boggaghey = to soften, relax, ease, moisten, dissolve
boggyr = soft
boglagh = quagmire, morass, swamp, oozy, boggy
bog-roauyr = podgy
bog-vroiet = soft-boiled
bog- vroojit = squashy
Old Breton buc = soft, tender
Middle Breton boug = soft, tender

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰewgʰ- (to bend, curve, arch) [source].

The English word bog (wet spongy ground, marsh, swamp), was borrowed from the Irish or Scottish Gaelic bogach [source].

English words from the same PIE root include badge, bagel, (to) bow, buck and bow (and arrow) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) muad = cloud, mist, fumes
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) muad, muadh = cloud, mist, fumes
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muadh = soft, moist
Manx (Gaelg) meeley = soft, bland, smooth, yielding, soft-spoken, moisten, delicate, fine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) medal, meddal [kam] = soft, yielding, tender, delicate, pliable
Welsh (Cymraeg) meddal [ˈmɛðal / ˈmeːðal] = soft, yielding, tender, delicate, pliable; mild, gentle, placid, tolerant, merciful, lax, inexperienced, foolish, weak
meddalu = to soften, become soft, thaw; to lenite, cause lenition
meddalaidd = soft, softish, tender, immature, foolish, weak
meddalder = softness, soft spot, tenderness, sensitivity
meddaledig = softened, soft, tender
meddalwedd = software
treiglad meddal = soft mutation
Middle Cornish medhal, meddal = soft, mollient, tender
medhalder = softness, tenderness, mildness, gentleness
Cornish (Kernewek) medhel = soft
medhelhe = to lenite, soften, absorb
medhelheans = lenition
medhelweyth = software
Middle Breton mezell = malleable, mean
Breton (Brezhoneg) mezel = malleable, mean, leprosy

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm [ˈɛjl] = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos was possibly borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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