Early and Soon

Words for early, soon and related things in Celtic languages.

Early Morning

Proto-Celtic *moxs = soon, early
Old Irish (Goídelc) moch [mox] = early
mochrád, mochtráth = morning (“early hour”)
mos [mos] = soon
[moː] = soon
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) moch = early, betimes, prompt, speedy, premature
mos = soon, quickly
= soon
Irish (Gaeilge) moch [mˠʊx/mˠɔx/mˠʌx] = early
mochánach = early riser
mochdháil = early morning
mochdhúnadh = early closing
mochóirí = early rising, early riser
mocháthráth = early hour
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) moch [mɔx] = early
mocheirigh [mɔxərʲɪ] = early rising
mochthrath [mɔxra] = morning, dawn, very early
Manx (Gaelg) mogh = early
moch-irree = early rising
moch-appee = forward, precocious
moghrey = morning
Proto-Brythonic *mox = soon, early
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) moch = soon, early
moch dwyreawc = early-rising
Welsh (Cymraeg) moch = soon, early
mochddwyreog = early-rising
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) meuch = quickly, soon

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *moḱs (quickly, early). The Goidelic words were borrowed from Proto-Brythonic. Words from the same root include mox (soon, afterwards, then) in Latin and मक्षू (makṣū́ – soon, rapidly, quickly, speedily) in Sanskrit [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸlowto- = to go, flow, be swift
Old Irish (Goídelc) luath [l͈uːa̯θ] = swift, fast
lúas [l͈uːa̯s] = swiftness, speecd
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lúath = quick, swift, swiftness, speed
lúath(ug)ad = act of hastening, accelerating, expediting
Irish (Gaeilge) luath [mˠʊx/mˠɔx/mˠʌx] = quick, fast, speed, early, soon, fickle
luaithe = quickness, swiftness, earliness
luas = speed, velocity, earliness
luathaigh = to quicken, hasten, accelerate
luathaitheach = accelerating, accelerative
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luath [l̪ˠuə] = quick, fast, fleet, swift, express, feisty
luathachadh = accelerating, speeding up, hastening, hurrying
luathaichear = accelerator
luath-aireach = precocious, early, immature, quick-witted
luath-bheul = a person who is quick to criticize
luath-chasach = fleet-footed
luath no mall = sooner or later, fast or slow
luath-sgeul = brief/short news, newsflash
bàta-luath = speedboat
Manx (Gaelg) leah = early, prompt, swift, soon, betimes
leahid = earliness
laueys = alacrity, elbow grease, skilfulness
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleygys, lleiges = soon, immediately, directly, forthwith, anon, presently, by and by, in a little while
Welsh (Cymraeg) lleighys, llegys = soon, immediately, directly, forthwith, anon, presently, by and by, in a little while

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plew- (to fly, flow, run). The Welsh words might not come from the same roots. Words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood, and Pluto in English [source].

Note: in Breton early is abred, and soon is bremaik. I don’t know the origins of these words.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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