Yakut or Sakha is a Turkic language with about 363,000 speakers
in the Russian Federation, mainly in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
and also in the Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions and the Taimyr
and Evenki autonomous districts.
Yakut first appeared in writing in 1692 as part of a book by the
traveller N. Witsen and published in Amsterdam. The first literary work
in Yakut Reminiscences by A. Y. Uvarovsky
and its German translation was published in 1851 as a part of Otto N.
Böhtlingk's work About the Yakut language. Böhtlingk
used an alphabet based on Cyrillic with some special characters.
Between 1922-1939 a version of the Latin alphabet devised by S.A. Novgorodov
was used to write Yakut, and since 1939 the Cyrillic alphabet has been used.
Long vowels and diphthongs
The letters in red are used only in Russian loanwords.
the long нь sound is written as ннь, e.g. оонньоо
Yakut has vowel harmony:
back vowels are а, аа, ы, ыы, ыа, о, оо, у, уу and уо;
front vowels are э, ээ, и, ии, иэ, ө, өө, ү, үү and үө
back-unrounded vowels are а, аа, ы, ыы and ыа;
front-unrounded are э, ээ, и, ии and иэ;
back-rounded vowels are о, оо, у, уу and уо;
front-rounded are ө, өө, ү, үү and үө
Between vowels, с usually becaomes h, e.g. Aлааhым = Aлаас+ым "my Allas".
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)