Orok / Uilta (уйльта / ульта)
Orok belongs to the Northern branch of the Manchu-Tungus
(Tungusic) languages. It is spoken by about 64 people in the
Poronaysky and Nogliksky Administrative Divisions of Sakhalin
Island in the Russian Federation. There are also some Oroks
who live on Hokkaido island in Japan and maybe three of them
Orok is used as an everyday language by some members of the
older generation of Orok people, and is taught in one school
on Sakhalin. Since 2007 Orok has been written with a version
of the Cyrillic alphabet, and an Orok primer has been published.
A Japanese linguist, Professor Jiro Ikegami, developed the written
form of Orok.
Orok alphabet and pronunciation
- г = [ɣ] between vowels
- г = [ɢ], к = [q] and х = [χ] when adjacent to [α,ɔ,ʊ] e.g. амака [αmαqα] абгимбури [αb'ɢɪmbʊrɪ]
- е = [(ʲ)e:] - can be palatalized after a consonant: бē [b(ʲ)e:]
- э = [ɨ] can be used word-finally: хэрэ [xərə~xərɨ]
- Vowel harmony: [α, ɪ, ɔ, ʊ] are hard; [i, ə, o, u] are soft, and [e:] is neutral: e.g. агдуманнē [αɢdʊmαnne:], нэудумэннē [nəudumənne:]
Sample text in Orok
Чипāли гуруннē балӡичи гэвумэ, омотто м нэ мөрөнӡи, м нэ доронӡи. Нōчи идэлу, иркалу, м нэ м нӡи нāдактаӈачи бūчи.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Information about the Orok language and people
Tungusic / Manchu-Tungus languages
Orok / Uilta,
Other languages written with the Cyrillic alphabet